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I IT. 



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190 2. 





Proem. — Invocation. — Beatrice, and Dante trans- 
humanized, ascend through the Sphere of Fire toward 
the Moon. — Beatrice explains the cause of their as- 
cent I 


Proem. — Ascent to the Moon. — The cause of Spots 
on the Moon. — Influence of the Heavens . . . lo 

The Heaven of the Moon. — Spirits v^hose vows had 
been broken. — Piccarda Donati. — The Empress 
Constance 19 

Doubts of Dante, respecting the justice of Heaven and 
the abode of the blessed, solved by Beatrice. — Ques- 
tion of Dante as to the possibility of reparation for 
broken vows 26 


The sanctity of vows, and the seriousness with which 
they are to be made or changed. — Ascent to the 
Heaven of Mercury. — The shade of Justinian . . 34 



Justinian tells of his own life. — The story of the Ro- 
man Eagle. — Spirits in the planet Mercury. — 
Romeo 41 


Discourse of Beatrice. — The Fall of Man. — The 
scheme of his Redemption ........ 49 


Ascent to the Heaven of Venus. — Spirits of Lovers. 
— Charles Martel. — His discourse on the order and 
the varieties in mortal things 56 


The planet Venus. — Conversation of Dante with 
Cunizza da Romano. — With Folco of Marseilles. — 
Rahab. — Avarice of the Papal Court .... 66 


Ascent to the Sun. — Spirits of the wise, and the learned 
in theology. - — St. Thomas Aquinas. — He names 
to Dante those who surround him 76 


The Vanity of worldly desires. — St. Thomas Aquinas 
undertakes to solve two doubts perplexing Dante. — 
He narrates the life of St. Francis of Assisi , . .85 


Second circle of the spirits of wise religious men, doc- 
tors of the Church and teachers. — St. Bonaventura 


narrates the life of St. Dominic, and tells the names 

of those who form the circle with him . . . . 93 


St. Thomas Aquinas speaks again, and explains the 
relation of the wisdom of Solomon to that of Adam 
and of Christ, and declares the vanity of human 
judgment 102 


At the prayer of Beatrice, Solomon tells of the glori- 
fied body of the blessed after the Last Judgment. — 
Ascent to the Heaven of Mars. — Spirits of the Sol- 
diery of Christ in the form of a Cross with the figure 
of Christ thereon. — Hymn of the Spirits . . .ill 

Dante is welcomed by his ancestor, Cacciaguida. — Cac- 
ciaguida tells of his family, and of the simple life of 
Florence in the old days 118 


The boast of blood. — Cacciaguida continues his dis- 
course concerning the old and the new Florence . .126 


Dante questions Cacciaguida as to his fortunes. — Cac- 
ciaguida replies, foretelling the exile of Dante, and 
the renown of his Poem 137 


The Spirits in the Cross of Mars. — Ascent to the 
Heaven of Jupiter. — Words shaped in light upon 


the planet by the Spirits. — Denunciation of the ava- 
rice of the Popes 144 


The voice of the Eagle. — It speaks of the mysteries of 
Divine justice ; of the necessity of Faith for salva- 
tion ; of the sins of certain kings 151 


The song of the Just. — Princes vv^ho have loved right- 
eousness, in the eye of the Eagle. — Spirits, once 
Pagans, in bliss. — Faith and Salvation. — Predesti- 
nation • 1 59 


Ascent to the Heaven of Saturn. — Spirits of those w^ho 
had given themselves to devout contemplation. — The 
Golden Stairway. — St. Peter Damian. — Predesti- 
nation. — The luxury of modern Prelates. — Dante 
alarmed by a cry of the spirits 1 66 


Beatrice reassures Dante. — St. Benedict appears. — 
He tells of the founding of his Order, and of the 
falling away of its brethren. - — Beatrice and Dante 
ascend to the Starry Heaven. — The constellation of 
the Twins. — Sight of the Earth . . • . . .173 

The Triumph of Christ 180 


St. Peter examines Dante concerning Faith, and ap- 
proves his answer 186 



St. James examines Dante concerning Hope. — St. John 
appears, with a brightness so dazzKng as to deprive 
Dante, for the time, of sight .193 


St. John examines Dante concerning Love. — Dante's 
sight restored. — Adam appears, and answers ques- 
tions put to him by Dante 201 


Denunciation by St. Peter of his degenerate successors. 
— Dante gazes upon the Earth. — Ascent of Bea- 
trice and Dante to the Crystalline Heaven. — Its 
nature. — Beatrice rebukes the covetousness of mor- 
tals 208 

The Heavenly Hierarchy 216 


Discourse of Beatrice concerning the creation and nature 
of the Angels. — She reproves the presumption and 
fooHshness of preachers 223 


Ascent to the Empyrean. — The River of Light. — 
The celestial Rose. — The seat of Henry VII. — 
The last words of Beatrice 231 


The Rose of Paradise. — St. Bernard. — Prayer to Bea- 
trice. — The glory of the Blessed Virgin . . .238 



St. Bernard describes the order of the Rose, and points 
out many of the Saints. — The children in Para- 
dise. — The angelic festival. — The patricians of 
the Court of Heaven 244 


Prayer to the Virgin. — The Beatific Vision. — The 
Ultimate Salvation 252 



Proem, — Invocation. — Beatrice.^ and Dante trans- 
humanized., ascend through the Sphere of Fire toward the 
Moon. — Beatrice explains the cause of their ascent. 

The glory of Him who moves everything 
penetrates through the universe, and is resplen- 
dent in one part more and in another less. In 
the heaven which receives most of His light I 
have been/ and have seen things which he who 
descends from thereabove neither knows how 
nor has power to recount ; because, drawing 
near to its own desire,^ our intellect enters so 
deep, that the memory cannot follow after. 
Truly whatever of the Holy Realm I could 
treasure up in my mind shall now be the theme 
of my song. 

O good Apollo, for this last labor make me 
such a vessel of thy worth as thou demandest 

1. V. 5. The Empyrean. See Dante's Letter to Can 
Grande f §§ 24, 25. 

2. V. 7. The innate desire of the soul is to attain the 
vision of God, in which ** ultimate and perfect beatitude con- 
sists." S. T. ii.i 3. 8. 

2 PARADISE [vv. 15-32 

for the gift of the beloved laurel.^ Thus far 
one summit of Parnassus has been enough for 
me, but now with both'^ I need to enter the 
remaining arena. Enter into my breast, and 
breathe thou in such wise as when thou drew- 
est Marsyas from out the sheath of his limbs.^ 
O divine Power, if thou lend thyself to me so 
that I may make manifest the image of the 
Blessed Realm imprinted within my head, thou 
shalt see me come to thy chosen tree, and 
crown myself then with those leaves of which 
the theme and thou will make me worthy. So 
rarely. Father, are they gathered for triumph or 
of Caesar or of poet, (fault and shame of 
human wills,) that the Peneian leaf^ should 
bring forth joy unto the joyous Delphic deity, 

3. V. 15. So inspire me in this labor that I may de- 
serve the gift of the laurel. 

4. V. 17. Parnassus (see Lucan, Phars. v. 72) was 
supposed to have two peaks, and Dante here assumes that the 
Muses dwelt upon one, Apollo upon the other. At the 
opening of the preceding parts of his poem Dante has in- 
voked the Muses only. The allegorical meaning seems to be 
that the teaching of the reason and the light of Philosophy 
have sufficed for him thus far in his poem, but that now, in 
treating of things supersensual, he requires also the Divine 
grace and the guidance of Theology. 

5. V. 21. As thou drewest Marsyas from the sheath of 
his limbs, so draw me from human limitations. 

6. V. 32. Daphne, who was changed to the laurel, was 
the daughter of Peneus. 

vv. 33-44] CANTO I 3 

whenever it makes any one to long for it. Great 
flame follows a little spark : perhaps after me 
prayer shall be made with better voices, whereto 
Cyrrha ^ may respond. 

The lamp of the world rises to mortals 
through different passages, but from that which 
joins four circles with three crosses it issues 
with better course and conjoined with a better 
star, and it tempers and seals the mundane wax 
more after its own fashion.^ Almost such a 
passage had made morning there and evening 
here ; ^ and there all that hemisphere was white, 

7. V. 36. Cyrrha, a city on the Crissaean gulf, sacred 
to Apollo, not far from the foot of Parnassus, and here used 
as synonymous with Delphi, of which it was the port. 

8. V. 42. At the vernal equinox the sun rises from a 
point on the horizon where the four great circles, namely, 
the horizon, the zodiac, the equator, and the equinoctial co- 
lure, meet, and, cutting each other, form three crosses. The 
sun is in the sign of Aries, ** a better star," because the in- 
fluence of this constellation was supposed to be benignant, 
and under it the earth reclothes itself It was the season 
assigned to the Creation and to the Annunciation. 

9. V. 44. There, in the Earthly Paradise ; here, on 
earth. The vernal equinox (according to the calendar) be- 
ing a few days passed, the sun had entered not by the pre- 
cise passage described in the preceding verses, but ** almost " 
by it. 

The last indication of time given in the Purgatory is in the 
last canto, in the words : ** the sun was holding the circle 

4 PARADISE [vv. 45-49 

and the other part black, when I saw Beatrice 
turned to her left side, and gazing upon the 
sun : never did eagle so fix himself upon it. 
And even as a second ray is wont to issue from 

of the meridian," v. 104, at the moment when the seven 
ladies stopped before the fount from which the Euphrates and 
the Tigris were issuing. Then follows a brief conversation, 
after which Matilda takes Dante to the Eunoe, of which he 
drinks, and whence he returns to Beatrice " pure and dis- 
posed to mount unto the stars.'' It would seem natural that 
the ascent to them should at once begin. But the verses 
in this canto, describing the passage of the sun at its rising, 
have led many interpreters of the poem to believe that they in- 
-dicate sunrise as the hour of the ascent, and that, consequently, 
a period of about eighteen hours elapses, unaccounted for, be- 
tween the last scene of Purgatory and the first of Paradise. 
This view seems to derive confirmation from the words, 
" such a passage had made morning here and evening there." 
But it is perhaps better to hold with other commentators, 
that no long interval passed between the draught of Eunoe 
and the ascent to Paradise ; that the description of the pas- 
sage of the sun is not to be taken as defining the hour, but 
simply as indicating the favorable season ; and that by morn- 
ing and evening are meant the time from sunrise to noon, and 
from sunset to midnight. If this be the correct interpreta- 
tion, the ascent of Dante and Beatrice to the Heavens was 
at noon, the appropriate hour for the entrance to Paradise. 
The entrance to Hell had been at nightfall ; to Purgatory at 
dawn, the hour of hope ; and now the entrance to Paradise 
is at noon, when the Sun is in full glory. <* The sixth hour, 
that is, midday," says Dante in the Convito (iv. 23, 145), 
**is the most noble hour of the whole day, and has the most 
power. ' * 

vv. 50-71] CANTO I 5 

the first, and mount upward again, like a pil- 
grim who wishes to return ; so from her action, 
infused through the eyes into my imagination, 
mine was made, and I fixed my eyes upon 
the sun beyond our wont. Much is permitted 
there which here is not permitted to our facul- 
ties, by virtue of the place made for the human 
race as its proper seat.'° Not long did I en- 
dure it, nor so little that I did not see it sparkle 
round about, like iron that issues boiling from 
the fire. And on a sudden," day seemed to be 
added to day, as if He who has the power had 
adorned the heaven with another sun. 

Beatrice was standing with her eyes wholly 
fixed on the eternal wheels, and on her I fixed 
my eyes from thereabove removed. Looking 
at her I inwardly became such as Glaucus '"^ be- 
came on tasting of the grass which made him 
consort in the sea of the other gods. Trans- 
humanizing cannot be signified in words ; there- 
fore let the example '^ sufiice him for whom 

10. V. 57. The Earthly Paradise, made for man in his 
original excellence as his proper abode. 

11. V. 6 1 . So rapid was his ascent as he was drawn up- 
ward, following Beatrice, through the gleaming sphere of fire, 
which was supposed to be between the sphere of the air and 
that of the moon. 

12. V. 68. A fisherman changed to a sea-god. The 
story is in Ovid {^Metamorphoses y xiii. 943—949). 

13. V. 71. Just cited, of Glaucus. 

6 PARADISE [vv. 72-89 

grace reserves the experience. If I was only 
that of me which thou didst the last create/^ O 
Love that governest the heavens. Thou know- 
est, who with Thy light didst lift me. When 
the revolution which Thou, being desired, 
makest eternal,'^ made me attent unto itself 
with the harmony which Thou dost attune and 
modulate, so much of the heaven then seemed 
to me enkindled by the flame of the sun, 
that rain or river never made so widespread a 

The novelty of the sound and the great light 
kindled in me a desire concerning their cause, 
never before felt with such keenness. Whereon 
she, who saw me as I see myself, to quiet my 
perturbed mind opened her mouth, ere I mine 
to ask, and began : " Thou thyself makest thy- 
self dull with false imagining, so that thou seest 

14. V. 73. In the twenty-fifth Canto of Purgatory, 
Dante has said that when the articulation of the brain is per- 
fect God breathes into it a new spirit, the living soul ; and 
he means here that, like St. Paul, he was caught up into 
Heaven, and cannot tell '* whether in the body or out of 
the body " (2 Corinthians xii. 3 ) . 

15. V. 76. The desire to be united with God is the 
source of the eternal revolution of the heavens. *« The 
Empyrean ... is the cause of the most swift motion of the 
First Moving Heaven, because of the most ardent desire of 
every part of the latter to be conjoined with every part of that 
most divine and quiet heaven." Convito, ii. 4, 19-25. 

vv. 90-110] CANTO I 7 

not what thou wouldst see, if thou hadst shaken 
it off. Thou art not on earth, as thou believ- 
est ; but lightning, flying from its proper site, 
never ran as thou who art returning there- 
unto." '' 

If I was divested of my first doubt by these 
brief little smiled-out words, within a new one 
was I the more enmeshed. And I said : " Al- 
ready I rested content concerning a great won- 
der ; but now I wonder how I can transcend 
these light bodies." Whereon she, after a 
pitying sigh, directed her eyes toward me, with 
that look which a mother turns on her deliri- 
ous child, and she began : " All things whatso- 
ever have order among themselves ; and this is 
the form which makes the universe like unto 
God.'7 Herein the exalted creatures '^ see the im- 
print of the Eternal Power, which is the end for 
which the aforesaid rule is made. In the order 
of which I speak, all natures are disposed, by 

16. V. 93. To thine own proper site, — Heaven, the 
true home of the soul. 

17. V. 105. The order of the created universe is the 
outward manifestation of the ideas of God, and that which 
God chiefly intends in created things is the good which con- 
sists in likeness to Himself. See 6". T. i. 45. 3 ; 50. i. The 
whole of this discourse of Beatrice is closely conformed to the 
teaching of the Summa Theologiae. 

18. V. 106. The created beings endowed with souls, — 
angels and men. 

8 PARADISE [vv. 111-131 

diverse lots, more or less near to their source ; '^ 
wherefore they are moved to different ports 
over the great sea of being, and each with the 
instinct given to it which bears it on. This 
bears the fire upward toward the moon ; this 
is the motive force in mortal hearts ; this binds 
together and unites the earth. Nor does this 
bow shoot forth ^° only the created things which 
are without intelligence, but also those which 
have understanding and love. The Provi- 
dence that ordains all this, makes always quiet 
with its own light the heaven ""' within which 
that one which has the greatest speed revolves. 
And thither now, as to a site decreed, the vir- 
tue of that bowstring is bearing us on, which 
directs to a joyful mark whatever it shoots. 
It is true, that as the form often does not ac- 
cord with the intention of the art, because the 
material is deaf to respond, so the creature 
sometimes deviates from this course ; for it has 

19. V. 1 1 1. The likeness to God is participated by dif- 
ferent things in different modes, and their common inclination 
to the universal good varies with their different modes of 
being. See S. 2^. i. 45. 3 ; 49. i. 

20. V. 119. This instinct directs to their proper end 
animate as v^^ell as inanimate things, as the bow shoots the 
arrpw to its mark. 

21. V. 122. The Empyrean, within which the Crys- 
talline heaven, the Primum Mobile, the first and swiftest of 
the moving heavens, revolves. 

vv. 132-142] CANTO I 9 

power, though thus impelled, to bend in an- 
other direction (even as the fire of a cloud may 
be seen to fall"), if the first impetus, diverted 
by false pleasure, turn it earthwards. Thou 
shouldst not, if I deem aright, wonder more at 
thy ascent, than at a stream if it descends from 
a high mountain to the base. It would be a 
marvel in thee, if, deprived of hindrance, thou 
hadst sat below, even as quiet in living fire on 
earth would be.'' 

Thereon she turned again her face toward 

22. V. 133. Contrary to its true nature. 



Proem, -— Ascent to the Moon. — The cause of Spots 
on the Moon. — Influence of the Heavens. 

O YE who in a little bark, desirous to listen, 
have followed behind my craft which singing 
passes on, turn to see again your shores ; put 
not out upon the deep ; for haply, losing me, 
ye would remain astray. The water which I 
take was never crossed. Minerva breathes,' and 
Apollo guides me, and nine Muses point out 
to me the Bears. 

Ye other few, who have lifted up your necks 
betimes for the bread of the Angels, on which 
one here subsists,'' but never becomes sated of 
it, ye may well put forth your vessel over the 
deep brine, keeping my wake before you on 
the water which turns smooth again. Those 
glorious ones who passed over to Colchos 
wondered not when they saw Jason become a 
ploughman, as ye shall do.^ 

1. V. 8. The breath of Minerva fills the sails. 

2. V. 12. Here on earth this bread is the true food of 
the soul. *«Oh, blessed those few who sit at that table 
where the bread of the Angels is eaten." ConvitOy i. i. 51. 

3. V. 18. When, to obtain the golden fleece, Jason 

vv. 19-37] CANTO II II 

The concreate and perpetual thirst for the 
deiform realm ^ was bearing us on swift almost 
as ye see the heavens. Beatrice was gazing up- 
ward, and I upon her, and perhaps in such time 
as a quarrel ^ rests, and flies, and from the notch 
is unlocked,^ I saw myself arrived where a won- 
derful thing drew my sight to itself; and there- 
fore she, from whom the working of my mind 
could not be hid, turning toward me, glad as 
beautiful, said to me : " Uplift thy grateful mind 
to God, who has united us with the first star.'*^ 

It seemed to me that a cloud had covered 
us, lucid, dense, solid, and polished, as if a dia- 
mond which the sun had struck. Within itself 
the eternal pearl had received us, even as water 
receives a ray of light, remaining undivided. If 
I was body (and here ^ it is not conceivable how 

yoked the two fire-breathing oxen, and ploughed with them, 
sowing the dragon's teeth in the furrows. See Ovid, Met am. 
vii. 104-122. 

4. V. 20. That instinct of which Beatrice has spoken in 
the preceding canto. 

5. V. 23. The bolt for a cross-bow. 

6. V. 24. The inverse order indicates the instantaneous- 
ness of the act. 

7. V. 30. The moon. 

8. V. 37. On earth, by mortal faculties. ** The body 
in glory will pass through the spheres of the heavens, without 
division of them, not because of its subtility, but by divine 
virtue." 5. T. Suppl. 85. 2. 

12 PARADISE [vv. 38-54 

one dimension brooked another, which needs 
must be if body enter body), the desire ought 
the more to kindle us to see that Essence, in 
which is seen how our nature and God were 
united. There will be seen that which we hold 
by faith, not demonstrated, but it will be known 
of itself like the first truth which man believes.^ 

I replied : " My Lady, devoutly, to the ut- 
most that I can, do I thank Him who has re- 
moved me from the mortal world. But tell 
me, what are the dusky marks of this body, 
which there below on earth make people fable 
about Cain?"^° 

She smiled a little, and then she said to me : 
"If the opinion of mortals errs where the key 
of sense does not unlock, surely the shafts of 

9. V. 45. Not demonstrated by argument^ but known 
by direct cognition, like the self-evident primary truths, first 
principles, per se nota. 

10. V. 51. Fancying the dark spaces on the surface of 
the moon to represent Cain carrying a thorn-bush for the 
fire of his sacrifice. In the ascent to the Empyrean each 
sphere is, as it were, a step in the attainment of knowledge of 
divine things, in which Dante is instructed by Beatrice, or by 
the spirits that appear to him. The questions solved are 
not asked casually, but are appropriate to the nature of the 
sphere and its place in the scheme of the universe. In this 
lowest sphere the question relates to a mere physical phenom- 
enon, but the explanation of it gives opportunity to Beatrice 
to expound the whole doctrine of the influences of the hea- 

vv. 55-71] CANTO II 13 

wonder ought not to pierce thee now, since 
thou seest that the reason following the senses 
has short wings. But tell me what thou thy- 
self thinkest of it." And I : " That which up 
here appears to us diverse, I believe is caused 
by bodies rare and dense." And she : " Surely 
thou shalt see that thy belief is quite sub- 
merged in error, if thou listen well to the argu- 
ment that I shall make against it. The eighth 
sphere " displays to you many lights, which 
may be noted of different aspects in quality 
and quantity. If rarity and density effected all 
this," one single virtue, more or less or equally 
distributed, would be in all. Different virtues 
must needs be fruits of formal principles ; '^ and 

11. V. 64. The heaven of the fixed stars. 

12. Y. 6j. If all this difference in the stars were caused 
merely by difference in rarity and density, which Dante had 
supposed to be the cause of the difference in the aspect of the 

13. V. 71. The argument, which is much condensed, 
is as follows : The stars differ in quality and quantity of 
brightness one from another ; if the rarity and density of their 
substance were the exclusive cause of this difference there 
would be but one virtue in them. But they exercise various 
influences, their virtues differ. These virtues result from 
formal principles, that is, from the principles which determine 
the form or specific being of their material substance. Hence, 
their virtues being various, the formal principles must be 
various, and it follows that differences in aspect cannot be 
accounted for solely by the principles of rarity and density. 

14 PARADISE [vv. 72-91 

these, all but one, would, in pursuance of thy 
reasoning, be destroyed. Further, if rarity were 
the cause of that duskiness about which you 
ask,'^ this planet would either be thus deficient 
of its matter in part quite through and through, 
or else, as a body divides the fat and the lean, 
so this would interchange the leaves in its 
volume. If the first were the case, it would 
be manifest in the eclipses of the sun, by the 
shining through of the light, as when it is 
poured upon any other rare body. This is not 
so ; therefore we must look at the other sup- 
position, and if it happen that I quash this, 
thy opinion will be proved false. If it be that 
this rarity does not pass through,'^ there must 
needs be a limit, beyond which its contrary 
allows it not to pass farther ; and thence the 
ray from another body is thrown back, just as 
color returns through a glass which hides lead 
behind itself. Now thou wilt say that the ray 

14. V. 74. The reason why the rarity was supposed 
to be the cause of the dark spots in the moon is stated by 
Dante in the Convito (ii. 14. 70—77) : **If the Moon be 
well observed two things are seen peculiar to it. . . . One 
is the shadow in it which is nothing but the rarity of its body, 
in which the rays of the sun cannot terminate, and be reflected 
as in the other parts. The other is the variation of its bright- 

15. V. 85. Does not extend quite through the substance 
of the moon. 

vv. 92-113] CANTO II 15 

shows itself dimmer there than in the other 
parts, because it is reflected there from farther 
back. From this objection experiment, which 
is wont to be the fountain to the streams of 
your arts, may deliver thee, if ever thou try it. 
Thou shalt take three mirrors, and set two 
of them at an equal distance from thee, and 
let the other, more remote, meet thine eyes 
between the first two. Turning toward them, 
cause a light to be placed behind thy back, 
which may shine upon the three mirrors, and 
return to thee reflected from all. Although 
the more distant image may not reach thee 
so great in quantity, thou wilt there see how 
it must needs be of equal brightness with the 

" Now, as beneath the blows of the warm 
rays that which lies under the snow remains 
bare both of the former color and the cold,'^ 
thee, thus remaining in thy intellect, will I 
inform with light so living that it shall tremble 
in its aspect to thee.'^ 

" Within the heaven of the divine peace re- 
volves a body, in whose virtue lies the being 

16. V. 108. The color of the snow and the cold dis- 
appear from the earth. 

17. V. 1 1 I . My argument has removed the error which 
covered thy mind, and now I will tell thee the true cause of 
the variety in the aspect of the moon. 

i6 PARADISE [vv. 114-127 

of all that It contains.'^ The following heaven/^ 
which has so many sights, distributes that be- 
ing through divers essences ^° distinct from it, 
and contained by it. The other circles, by va- 
rious differences, dispose the distinctions which 
they have within themselves unto their ends 
and their sowings.^' These organs of the world 
thus proceed, as thou now seest, from grade 
to grade ; for they receive from above, and 
operate below. Observe me well, how I ad- 
vance through this place to the truth which 
thou desirest, so that hereafter thou mayst 
know to keep the ford alone. The motion and 
the virtue of the holy spheres must needs be 

18. V. 114. Within the motionless Empyrean revolves 
the Crystalline Heaven, the Primum Mobile, from whose vir- 
tue, communicated to it from the Empyrean, all the inferior 
spheres contained within it derive their special mode of being. 

19. V. 115. The heaven of the Fixed Stars. ''Al- 
though the Starry Heaven is uniform in its substance it has 
multiplicity in its virtue, by reason of which it must needs 
have that diversity in its parts which we see, in order that 
through different organs it may exert the influence of differ- 
ent virtues." ^aestio de Aqua et Terra, § 21. 

20. V. 116. Through the planets, called essences be- 
cause each has a specific mode of being. 

21. V. 120. Each of the seven inferior heavens distri- 
butes its specific virtues in such wise as to secure their due 
ends, and to make them seed for the production of further 
effects. " The rays of the heavens are the way by which 
their virtue descends to the things below.'* Convito, ii. 7,90. 

vv. 128-141] CANTO II 17 

inspired by blessed motors/^ as the work of the 
hammer by the smith. And the heaven, which 
so many lights make beautiful, takes its image 
from the deep mind ^^ which revolves it, and 
makes thereof a seal. And as the soul within 
your dust is diffused through different mem- 
bers, and conformed to divers potencies, so does 
the Intelligence''^ display its goodness multi- 
plied through the stars, itself circling upon its 
own unity. Divers virtue makes divers alloy 
with the precious body that it quickens, where- 
in it is bound, even as life in you.''^ Be- 
cause of the glad nature whence it flows, the 
mingled virtue shines through the body, as glad- 
ness through the living pupil. From thisf 
comes what seems different between light and 

22. V. 129. The blessed motors are the Orders of the 
angels, which are called Intelligences, as being the instruments 
through which the Divine Intelligence is transmitted to the 
created universe. 

23. V. I 3 I . The deep mind of the angelic motors, be- 
cause it reflects the mind of God, and is actuated by it. 

24. V. 136. The Angelic Intelligence. Intelligence \%y 
probably, to be interpreted here a collective noun, used for 
the Order of the Angels who are the motors of the Heaven 
of the Fixed Stars. Cf xxviii. 78. 

25. V. 141. The divers virtues proceeding from God, 
through the instrumentality of the blessed motors or angehc 
Intelligences, produce different results in the different bodies 
which they quicken. 

26. V. 145. From this diversity of virtues diversely 
diffused through the stars and the planets. 

i8 PARADISE [vv. 142-148 

light, not from density and rarity ; this is the for- 
mal principle which produces, conformably with 
its own goodness, the dark and the bright." ^^ 

27. V. 148. It may seem surprising to the reader on 
first becoming acquainted with the preceding canto, which has 
so little poetic charm, that Dante's first enquiry of Beatrice, 
after his overwhelming experience in entering the superterres- 
trial world, and his marvellous reception into the sphere of the 
Moon, should be concerning a mere physical phenomenon, 
and especially a matter so apparently trivial as the cause of 
the light and dark spots on the face of the Moon, and seem- 
ingly suggested to him only by finding himself in the body 
of the planet. But the surprise will vanish, and the inten- 
-tion of the poet will become manifest, on consideration of 
the full significance of the reply made by Beatrice. She 
begins with the lesson that in the supersensual world the evi- 
"dence of the senses is not to be trusted, since even in the 
world of sense conclusions drawn fi-om their evidence are 
often erroneous (vv. 52-105). She then proceeds to set 
forth the mode of operation of the Heavens, begun in the 
Crystalline Heaven, — the Primum Mobile, — and thence 
transmitted to the inferior spheres (vv. 1 12-123). ^^^ 
*' their motion and their virtue," from which the differences 
in themselves and the differences in the natures and aspects 
of mortal things proceed, are not inherent in themselves, but 
are inspired by angelic Intelligences, ministers of the Divine 
Will to carry out the Divine plan in the order of the Uni- 
verse, and to impress upon it the image of the Divine idea 
(w. 127-148). 

Thus the apparently trivial question asked by Dante has 
led to an exposition of the Divine scheme of the Universe, 
requisite for the understanding of the nature of the realm into 
which the poet has been uplifted. 


The Heaven of the Moon. — Spirits whose vows had 
been broken. — Pic car da Donati. — The Empress Con- 

That sun which first had heated my breast 
with love had uncovered to me, proving and 
disproving, the sweet aspect of fair truth ; and I, 
to confess myself corrected and assured, so far as 
was needful raised my head more erect to speak. 
But a sight appeared which held me so fast to 
itself, to look on it, that I did not bethink me 
of my confession. 

As through transparent and polished glasses, 
or through clear and tranquil waters, not so 
deep that their bed be lost, the lineaments of 
our faces return so faintly, that a pearl on a white 
brow comes not less readily to our eyes, such I 
saw many faces eager to speak ; wherefore I ran 
into the contrary error to that which kindled love 
between the man and the fountain.' At once, 

I. V. 1 8. Narcissus conceived the image to be a true 
face ; Dante takes the real faces to be reflections of persons 
behind him. The spirits which appear here, and in the other 

20 PARADISE [vv. 19-30 

as soon as I was aware of them, supposing them 
mirrored faces, I turned round my eyes to see 
of whom they were, and saw nothing ; and I 
turned them forward again, straight into the 
light of my sweet guide who, with a smile, was 
glowing in her holy eyes. " Do not wonder 
that I smile," she said to me, " at thy childish 
thought, since thy foot does not trust itself yet 
upon the truth, but turns thee, as it is wont, to 
emptiness. These which thou seest are real 
substances,^ relegated here for failure in their 

lieavens successively, to welcome Dante, have temporarily left 
their seats in the Empyrean, in order to reveal to him the 
truths of utility or delight (see Letter to Can Grande,^ 33) 
concerning v^hich he needs or desires instruction. These 
truths deal mainly v^^ith relations of things human to things 
divine, not to the mysteries of heaven. In this the lowest 
sphere of all, typifying the lowest grade of bliss, the spirits 
are visible like fair ghosts, not wholly concealed by the radi- 
ance of their joy ; in the next heaven, that of Mercury, the 
shining forms of the spirits are at first seen, but the one of 
them who speaks with Dante becomes hidden in the in- 
creasing effulgence which proceeds from the joy of love dis- 
played in act toward the poet. In the heaven of Venus the 
spirits are completely swathed in light, and so from heaven 
to heaven their radiance becomes more and more dazzling and 

2. V. 29. These are not images, but real persons. A 
substance was, according to the schoolmen, a created being 
or thing possessing independent existence, ** essentia cui com- 
petit per se esse." S, T. i. 3. 5. 

vv. 31-52] CANTO III 21 

vows. Therefore speak with them, and hear, 
and beHeve ; for the veracious light which satis- 
fies them does not allow them to turn their feet 
from itself." 

And I directed myself to the shade that 
seemed most eager to speak, and I began, like 
a man whom an excessive desire confuses : " O 
well-created spirit, who in the rays of life eternal 
art tasting the sweetness, which if not tasted is 
never understood, it will be gracious to me, if 
thou content me with thy name, and with your 
lot." 3 Whereon she promptly, and with smil- 
ing eyes : " Our charity does not lock its door 
to a just wish, any more than that "^ which wills 
that all its court be like itself. In the world I 
was a virgin Sister,^ and if thy memory look 
back well, my being more beautiful will not con- 
ceal me from thee ; but thou wilt recognize that 
I am Piccarda,^ who, placed here with these 
other blessed ones, am blessed in the slowest 
sphere. Our affections, which are inflamed only 

3. V. 41. "Your lot;'' the ''your" includes all the 
spirits who have presented themselves in the Moon. 

4. V. 44. The Divine charity. 

5. V. 46. A nun, of the order of St. Clare. 

6. V. 49. The sister of Corso Donati and of Forese : 
see Purgatory f Canto xxiv. 10-15. I^ "^ay not be without 
intention that the first blessed spirit whom Dante sees in Par- 
adise is a relative of his own wife. Gemma dei Donati. 

22 PARADISE [vv. 53-73 

in the pleasure of the Holy Spirit, rejoice in 
being formed according to His order ;7 and 
this lot, which appears so far down, is given 
to us, because our vows were neglected and 
void in some particular/' Whereon I to her : 
"In your marvellous aspects there shines I 
know not what divine which transmutes you 
from our former conceptions ; therefore I was 
not swift in remembering ; ^ but now that which 
thou sayest to me assists me, so that to reshape 
is easier to me. But tell me, ye who are happy 
here, do ye desire a more exalted place, in order 
to see more, or to make for yourselves more 
friends ? " With those other shades she first 
smiled a little, then answered me so glad, that 
she seemed to burn in the first fire of love : 
" Brother, virtue of charity ^ quiets our will, and 
makes us wish only for that which we have, and 
quickens not our thirst for aught else. If we 
desired to be more on high, our desires would 

7. V. 54. Rejoice in whatever grade of bliss is assigned 
to them in that order of the universe which is the form that 
makes it like unto God. 

8. V. 61. Compare Dante's words to Ciacco, Hell, 
Canto vi. 43-45. In Hell anguish, in Paradise joy trans- 
figures the spirits and makes recognition of them difficult. 

9. V. 71. Charity, in the sense of love, quiets their 
will. " There is no envy among the saints, for each attains 
the end of his desire, which is proportioned to the goodness 
of his nature.'* Convito,m, 15, 1 01-104. 

vv. 74-98] CANTO III 23 

be discordant with the will of Him who assigns 
us here, which thou wilt see is not possible in 
these circles, if to exist in charity is here of ne- 
cessity, and if thou dost well consider its nature. 
Nay, it is the essence of this blessed existence to 
hold itself within the divine will, whereby our 
wills themselves are made one. So that as we 
are, from seat to seat throughout this realm, to 
all the realm is pleasing, as to the King who 
inwills us with His will; and His will is our 
peace ; it is that sea whereunto everything is 
moving which It creates and which nature 

Then was it clear to me, how everywhere in 
Heaven is Paradise, even if the grace of the 
Supreme Good does not there rain down in 
one measure. 

But as it happens, if one food sates, and for 
another the appetite still remains, that this is 
asked for, and thanks returned for that ; even 
thus did I, with act and with word, to learn 
from her, what was the web wherein she had not 
drawn the shuttle to the end.'° " Perfect life 
and high desert enheaven a lady " higher up," 

10. V. 96. To learn from her what was the vow which 
she did not fulfil. 

11. V. 98. Santa Clara, the friend of St. Francis, who, 
in I 212, established under his direction a religious order for 
virgins, of extreme austerity. The order bore her name, and 

24 PARADISE [vv. 99-118 

she said to me, " according to whose rule, in 
your world below, there are who vest and veil 
themselves, in order that, even till death, they 
may wake and sleep with that Spouse who ac- 
cepts every vow which love conforms unto His 
pleasure. A young girl, I fled from the world 
to follow her, and in her garb I enclosed my- 
self, and pledged me to the pathway of her 
Order. Afterward men, more used to ill than 
good, dragged me forth from the sweet clois- 
ter ; " and God knows what then my life be- 
came. And this other splendor, which shows 
itself to thee at my right side, and which is en- 
kindled with all the light of our sphere, under- 
stands of herself that which I say of me.'^ She 
was a Sister ; and from her head in like manner 
the shadow of the sacred veil was taken. But 
after she too was returned unto the world, 
against her liking and against good usage, she 
was never loosed from the veil of the heart. '^ 
This is the light of the great Constance,'s who 

spread widely through Europe. She died in 1253, and was 
canonized in 1255. 

12. V. 107. According to the old commentators, her 
brother Corso forced Piccarda by violence to leave the con- 
vent, in order to make a marriage which he desired for her. 

13. V. 112. Her experience was similar to that of Pic- 

14. V. 1 17. She remained a nun at heart. 

15. V. 118. Constance, daughter of the king of Sicily, 

vv. 119-130] CANTO III 25 

from the second wind '^ of Swabia conceived 
the third and the last power." 

Thus she spoke to me, and then began sing- 
ing ^^Ave Maria ^^ and singing vanished, as 
through deep water some heavy thing. My 
sight, that followed her so far as was possible, 
after it lost her, turned to the mark of greater 
desire, and wholly reverted to Beatrice ; but 
she so flashed upon my gaze that at first my 
sight endured it not : and this made me more 
slow in questioning. 

Roger I. ; married, in 11 86, to the Emperor, Henry VI., 
the son of Frederick Barbarossa, and father of Frederick II. , 
who died in 1250, the last Emperor of his line. 

16. V. 119. The significance of this metaphor is not 
clear. It, perhaps, refers to the stormy natures or lives of 
the Swabian emperors, so that "wind ** stands for "blast" 
or " whirlwind." 


Doubts of Dante^ respecting the justice of Heaven and 
the abode of the blessed^ solved by Beatrice, — Question of 
Dante as to the possibility of reparation for broken vows. 

Between two viands, distant and attractive 
in equal measure, a free man would die of hun- 
ger, before he would bring one of them to his 
teeth.' Thus a lamb would stand between two 
ravenings of fierce wolves, fearing both alike ; 
thus would stand a dog between two does. 
Wherefore if, urged in equal measure by my 
doubts, I was silent, I do not blame myself; 
nor, since it was necessary, do I commend. 

I was silent, but my desire was depicted on 
my face, and my questioning with that far more 
fervent than by distinct speech. Beatrice did 
what Daniel did,^ when he lifted Nebuchad- 

1 . V. 3 . This is the same sophism that became widely- 
known, later in the fourteenth century, under the name of the 
Ass of Buridan. Buridan was one of the chief nominalists of 
the generation after Dante. 

2. V. 13. As the dream of Nebuchadnezzar had been 
revealed to Daniel, as well as the interpretation of it by which 
he quenched the anger of the king, so, the unuttered questions 

vv. 14-27] CANTOIV 27 

nezzar from anger, which had made him un- 
justly cruel, and she said : " I see well how 
one and another desire draws thee, so that thy 
care so binds itself that it breathes not forth.^ 
Thou reasonest: * If the good will endure, by 
what reckoning does the violence of others 
lessen for me the measure of desert ? * Fur- 
ther, that the souls appear to return to the 
stars, in accordance with the opinion of Plato, 
gives thee occasion for doubt."* These are the 
questions that thrust equally upon thy wish ; 
and therefore I will treat first of that which has 
the most venom.^ 

which perplexed Dante being visible to Beatrice, she pro- 
ceeded to quench his thirst for their solution. 

3. V. 18. Dante's equal eagerness to have each question 
solved hampered his power of expression of either. 

4. v. 24. Plato, in his Timaeus (41, 42), says that 
the creator of the universe assigned each soul to a star, whence 
they were to be sown in the vessels of time. " He who 
lived well during his appointed time was to return to the star 
which was his habitation, and there he would have a blessed 
and suitable existence." Jowett's translation. — Dante's 
doubt has arisen from the words of Piccarda (Canto iii. 50, 
51), which implied that her station was in the sphere of the 

5. V. 27. This question has the most poison, because 
the belief that the souls returned to the stars would be con- 
trary to the faith that the true end of the soul is the attain- 
ment of bliss in the vision of God in the Empyrean, and would 
tend to divert the soul from its effort to make itself worthy of 

28 PARADISE [vv. 28-48 

" Of the Seraphim he who is most in God, 
Moses, Samuel, and whichever John thou wilt 
take, I say even Mary, have not their seats 
in another heaven than those spirits who just 
now appeared to thee, nor have they more or 
fewer years for their existence ; but all make 
the first circle beautiful, yet have sweet life di- 
versely, through feeling more or less the eter- 
nal breath.^ These showed themselves here, 
not because this sphere is allotted to them, 
but to afford sign of the celestial grade which 
is least exalted. It is needful to speak thus 
to your wit, since only through objects of sense 
does it apprehend that which it afterward makes 
worthy of the intellect. For this the Scripture 
condescends to your capacity, and attributes 
feet and hands to God, and means otherwise ; 
and Holy Church represents to you Gabriel 
and Michael with human aspect, and the other 
who made Tobias whole again.^ That which 

this bliss. It also involved the theory, condemned as heresy 
by the council of Constantinople, in 540, that the soul was 
created separate from the body. 

6. V. 36. The abode of all the blessed is the Empyrean, 
— the first circle, counting from above ; but there are degrees 
in blessedness, each spirit enjoying according to its capacity ; 
no one is conscious of any lack. 

7. V. 48. The archangel Raphael, who restored sight to 
the old Tobias, so named in the Vulgate, but named Tobit 
in the English version of the book of Tobit. 

vv. 49-69] C A N T O I V 29 

Timaeus argues of the souls is not like this 
which is seen here, since it seems that he thinks 
as he says.^ He says that the soul returns to 
its own star, believing it to have been severed 
thence, when nature gave it for form.^ But 
perhaps his opinion is of other guise than his 
words sound, and may be of a meaning not to 
be derided. If he means that the honor of their 
influence and the blame return to these wheels, 
perhaps his bow hits some truth. This prin- 
ciple, ill understood, formerly turned awry 
almost the whole world, so that it ran astray in 
naming Jove, Mercury, and Mars.'° 

" The other dubitation which disturbs thee 
has less venom, for its malice could not lead 
thee from me elsewhere. That our justice 
seems unjust in the eyes of mortals is argument 
of faith," and not of heretical iniquity. But 

8. V. 51. It seems that his words are the expression of 
his real opinion. 

9. V. 54. The intellectual soul is united with the body 
as its substantial form. The form of anything is that by 
means of which it performs its functions {operatur'). The 
soul is that by which the body Uves, and hence is its form. 
S. T. i. 76. I. 

10. V. 63. Men were led astray so far as to ascribe the 
influence of the stars to the gods after whom they were named. 

11. V. 69. Mortals would not trouble themselves con- 
cerning the justice of God, unless they had faith in it. These 
perplexities are then arguments or proofs of faith ; as St. 

30 PARADISE [w. 70-83 

because your intelligence can well penetrate to 
this truth, I will make thee content, as thou 
desirest. If it be violence when he who suffers 
contributes nothing to what forces him, these 
souls were not by reason of that excused ; for 
will, unless it wills, is not quenched," but does 
as nature does in fire, though violence a thou- 
sand times may wrest it ; '^ because if it bend 
much or little,'* it follows the force ; and thus 
did these, when they had power to return to 
the holy place. If their will had been entire, 
such as held Lawrence '^ on the gridiron, and 

Thomas Aquinas says, <* The merit of faith consists in this, 
that man, out of obedience to God, assents to what he does 
not see." S. T, m. 7. 3. But in this case, as Beatrice 
goes on to show, mere human intelligence is sufficient to see 
that the injustice is only apparent. 

12. V. 76. Violence has no power over the will if the 
will be opposed to it. 

13. V. 78. These souls who were drawn by violence 
from the cloister were not by that relieved from their vow, 
but the moment constraint was removed should have returned 
to their original course, as fire which cannot be kept by any 
restraint from mounting upward. 

14. V. 79. If it give way to what Shakespeare calls 
''accessary yieldings." Lucrece, v. 1658. 

15. V. 83. St. Lawrence, who suffered martyrdom 
A. D. 258. <* His love of Christ was not to be overcome 
by the flame, and the fire which burned without was weaker 
than that which glowed within." Breviarium Rom, Die 
10. Aug. 

vv. 84-105] CANTO IV 31 

made Mucius '^ severe to his own hand, it would 
have urged them back, so soon as they were 
loosed, along the road on which they had been 
dragged ; but will so firm is too rare. And by 
these words, if thou hast gathered them up as 
thou shouldst, is the argument quashed which 
would have given thee annoy yet many times. 
" But now another pass runs traverse before 
thine eyes, such that by thyself thou wouldst 
not issue from it ere thou wert weary. I have 
put it in thy mind for certain, that a soul in 
bliss cannot lie, since it is always near to the 
Primal Truth ; and then thou mightst hear 
from Piccarda that Constance retained affection 
for the veil ; so that she seems in this to con- 
tradict me.'7 Many a time ere now, brother, 
has it happened that, in order to escape peril, 
that which it was not meet to do has been done 
against one's liking ; even as Alcmaeon (who, 
thereto entreated by his father, slew his own 
mother), not to lose piety, pitiless became.'^ On 

16. V. 84. " Who shall say that it was without Divine 
inspiration . . . that Mucius burned his own hand, because 
he had missed the blow which he thought should deliver 
Rome.'' ConvitOy iv. 5, 107-118. 

17. V. 99. The difficulty is this : if Constance ** was 
never in her heart loosed from the veil " (iii. 117) how is 
it that she did not return to the cloister ? 

18. v. 105. Amphiaraus, the seer, having been betrayed 
to his death at the siege of Thebes by his wife Eriphyle, 

32 PARADISE [vv. 106-129 

this point, I wish thee to think that the force 
mingles itself with the will, and they so act 
that the offences cannot be excused. Will ab- 
solute does not consent to the wrong ; but it 
consents in so far thereto, as it fears, if it draw 
back, to fall into greater trouble. Therefore 
when Piccarda says this, she means it of the 
absolute will ; and I of the other : '^ so that 
we both speak truth together." 

Such was the rippling of the holy stream 
which issued from the fount whence every truth 
flows forth ; and such it set at rest one and the 
other desire. 

" O beloved of the First Lover, O divine 
one," said I then, " whose speech overflows me 
and warms, so that it quickens me more and 
more, my affection is not so deep that it can 
suffice to render to you grace for grace,^° but 
may He who sees and can, respond for this. 
I clearly see that our intellect is never satis- 
fied unless the Truth illume it, beyond which 
nothing true extends. In that it reposes, as 
a wild beast in his lair, so soon as it has reached 
it : and it can reach it ; otherwise every desire 
would be in vain. Because of this, doubt 

enjoined on his son Alcmaeon to avenge him by slaying her. 
See Purgatory, xii. 49-51. 

19. V. 114. The other, that is, the qualified will. 

20. V. 122. Thanks equivalent to the favor. 

vv. 130-142] CANTO IV 33 

springs up like a shoot, at the foot of the 
truth ; and it is nature which urges us to the 
summit from height to height." This invites 
me, this gives me assurance. Lady, with rever- 
ence to question you of another truth which is 
obscure to me. I wish to know if man can so 
make satisfaction to you" for defective vows 
with other goods, that in your scales they may 
not be light ? " Beatrice looked at me with 
eyes so divine, full of the sparks of love, 
that my power, vanquished, turned its back, 
and I almost lost myself with eyes cast down. 

21. V. 132. Because of this constant desire for truth, 
there springs up naturally in man, with the attainment of each 
new truth, a doubt or question which urges him in the pur- 
suit of that further truth which may solve it. 

22. V. 136. To you ; that is, to the court of Heaven. 


The sanctity ofvows^ and the seriousness with which 
they are to he made or changed, — Ascent to the Heaven 
of Mercury, — The shade of "Justinian, 

" If I flame upon thee in the heat of love, 
beyond the measure that is seen on earth, so that 
J vanquish the valor of thine eyes, marvel not, 
for it proceeds from perfect vision, which, ac- 
cording as it apprehends, so does it move its 
foot to the apprehended good/ I see clearly 
how already in thy intellect is shining the eter- 
nal light,^ which, only seen, always enkindles 
love ; and if any other thing seduce your love, 
it is naught but some vestige of that light, 
ill-recognized, which therein shines through.' 

1. V. 6. The heat of love which dazzles thine eyes 
proceeds from the vision of God which, in proportion as it 
illuminates the soul with knowledge of Him, quickens its love 
for Him. 

2. V. 8. Dante's words in the last canto (w. 124— 
126) have shown this. 

3. V. 12. This corresponds with the doctrine concern- 
ing love set forth in the seventeenth and eighteenth cantos 
of Purgatory, 

vv. 13-33] CANTO V 35 

Thou wishest to know if for an unfulfilled vow 
so much can be paid with other service as may 
secure the soul from suit." ^ 

So Beatrice began this chant, and as one 
who breaks not off his speech, she thus con- 
tinued her holy discourse : " The greatest gift 
which* God in His bounty bestowed in creating, 
and the most conformed to His own good- 
ness, and that which He prizes the most, was 
the freedom of the will, with which the creatures 
that have intelligence, they all and they alone, 
were and are endowed. Now, if thou argue 
from this, the high worth of the vow will ap- 
pear to thee, if it be such that God consent 
when thou consentest;^ for, in closing the com- 
pact between God and man, victim is made of 
this treasure, such as I say,^ and made by its 
own act. What then can be rendered in com- 
pensation ? If thou think to make good use 
of that which thou hast offered, thou wishest to 
do good work with ill-gotten gain.^ 

4. V. 1 5. Brought by God for the fulfilment of the 
claim established by the original vow. 

5. V. 27. If the vow be valid through its acceptance 
by God. 

6. V. 29. This treasure of the freedom of the will, so 
precious as Beatrice has just declared it to be. 

7. V. 33. The intent to put what had been vowed to 
another, though good, use, affords no excuse for the breaidng 
of the vow. 

36 PARADISE [w. 34-55 

"Thou art now assured as to the greater 
point ;^ but since Holy Church in this grants 
dispensation, which seems contrary to the truth 
that I have disclosed to thee, it behoves thee 
still to sit a little at table, because the tough 
food which thou hast taken requires still some 
aid for thy digestion. Open thy mind to that 
which I reveal to thee, and shut it therewithin ; 
for to have heard without retaining does not 
make knowledge. 

"Two things combine in the essence of this 
sacrifice ; the one is that in respect to which it 
is made, the other is the covenant. This last 
is never cancelled if not kept; and concern- 
ing this was my preceding speech so precise. 
Therefore it was only imperative on the He- 
brews to make offering, while the special thing 
offered might be changed, as thou shouldst 
know.^ The other, which is known to thee 
as the matter,'° may indeed be such that there 
is no fault if it be exchanged for some other 
matter. But let not any one shift the load 

8. V. 34. That no other service can be substituted for 
a broken vow, for nothing can be offered comparable to the 
sacrifice of the free will. 

9. V. 51. See Leviticus xxvii., in respect to commuta- 
tion allowed. 

10. V. 52. That is, as the subject-matter of the vow, 
the thing offered. 

w. 56-68] CANTO V 37 

upon his shoulder at his own will, without the 
turning both of the white and of the yellow 
key." And let him deem every permutation 
foolish, if the thing laid down be not contained 
in that which is taken up, as four in six." There- 
fore whatever thing weighs so much, through 
its own worth, that it can drag down every bal- 
ance, cannot be made good with other spending. 
" Let not mortals take a vow as a trifle : 
be faithful, and not awry in so doing, as Jeph- 
thah was in his first offering ; '^ to whom it 
rather behoved to say : ' I have done ill,' than, 
by keeping his vow, to do worse.'^ And thou 

11. V. 57. Without the turning of the keys of St. Peter, 
that is, without clerical dispensation ; the key of gold signi- 
fying authority, that of silver, knowledge. See Purgatory, 
ix. II 8-1 26. 

12. V. 60. The matter substituted must exceed in 
worth that of the original vow, but not necessarily in a defi- 
nite proportion. The injunction in Leviticus xxvii. is to add 
a fifth part of the money of the estimation. 

13. V. 66. Be faithful in the keeping of the vow, but 
keep it not in any mistaken fashion, as Jephthah did ; see 
Judges xi. 30-39. *'In his Jirst offering*' is explained 
by the words of the Vulgate (verse 31), ** quicunque primus 
fiierit egressus foribus domus meae . . . eum holocaustum 
offeram Domino." 

14. V. 68. 

** For that which thou hast sworn to do amiss 
Is but amiss when it is truly done 5 
And being not done, where doing tends to ill, 
The truth is then most done not doing it." — John^ iii. I. 

38 PARADISE [vv. 69-94 

mayst find the great leader of the Greeks in 
like manner foolish ; '^ wherefore Iphigenia 
wept for her fair face, and made weep for her 
both the simple and the wise, who heard tell 
of such like observance. Be ye, Christians, 
more grave in moving ; be not like a feather to 
every wind, and think not that every water may 
wash you. Ye have the Old and the New Tes- 
tament, and the Shepherd of the Church who 
guides you ; let this suffice you for your salva- 
tion. If evil covetousness cry aught else to 
you, be ye men, and not silly sheep, so that the 
Jew among you may not laugh at you. Do 
not ye as the lamb, which leaves its mother's 
milk, and, simple and wanton, at its own plea- 
sure combats with itself." 

Thus Beatrice to me, even as I write ; then 
all desireful turned again to that region where 
the world is most alive.'^ Her silence and 
her changed look imposed silence on my eager 
mind, which already had new questions in ad- 
vance. And as an arrow that hits the mark 
before the bowstring is quiet, so we ran into 
the second realm. '^ Here I saw my lady so 

15. V. 69. Thus foolish was Agamemnon in keeping the 
vow which resulted in the sacrifice of his daughter Iphigenia. 

16. V. 87. Looking upward, toward the Empyrean. 

17. V. 93. The Heaven of Mercury, where blessed 
spirits who have been active in the pursuit of honor and fame 
show themselves. The shadow of the earth still reaches 

vv. 95-117] CANTO V 39 

joyous as she entered into the light of that hea- 
ven, that the planet itself became the brighter 
for it. And if the star was changed and smiled, 
what did I become, who even by my nature 
am transmutable in every wise ! 

As in a fishpond, which is still and clear, 
the fish draw to that which comes in such man- 
ner from without that they deem it their food, 
so I saw full more than a thousand splendors 
drawing toward us, and in each was heard : 
" Lo, one who shall increase our loves ! " '^ 
And as each one came to us, the shade was 
seen full of joy by the bright effulgence that 
issued from it. 

Think, Reader, if that which is here begun 
should not proceed, how thou wouldst have a 
grievous craving to know more ; and by thy- 
self thou wilt see what my desire was to hear 
from these of their conditions, soon as they 
became manifest to mine eyes. 

" O well-born,'^ to whom Grace concedes to 
see the thrones of the eternal triumph ere 
the warfare is abandoned,^" with the light which 

here, and the low grade in Heaven of the spirits who appear 
here is assigned to them because the love of earthly glory 
diverted their affections too much from the glory of Heaven. 

18. v. 105. By giving us occasion to manifest our love. 

19. v. 115. That is, born to good, to attain blessedness. 

20. V. 117. Ere thy life on earth, as a member of the 
Church Militant, is ended. 

40 PARADISE [vv. 118-139 

spreads through the whole heaven we are 
enkindled, and therefore if thou desirest to 
enlighten thyself by means of us, sate thyself 
at thy pleasure." Thus was it said to me by 
one of those pious spirits ; and by Beatrice : 
" Speak, speak securely, and trust even as to 
gods." ^' " I see clearly, how thou dost nest 
thyself in thine own light, and that thou draw- 
est it through thine eyes, because they sparkle 
as thou smilest ; ^^ but I know not who thou art, 
nor why, O worthy soul, thou hast the grade 
of the sphere which is veiled to mortals by an- 
other's rays." ^3 Xhis I said, addressed to the 
light which first had spoken to me ; whereon it 
became far more lucent than it had been. Even 
as the sun, which, when the heat has consumed 
the tempering of the dense vapors, conceals it- 
self by excess of light, so, by reason of more 
joy, did the holy shape hide itself from me 
within its own radiance, and thus close enclosed, 
it answered me in the fashion which the follow- 
ing canto sings. 

21. V. 123. '* Even as all holy men are called gods." 
S. T, iii. 16. I. 

22. V. 125. This is the last occasion, till he reaches the 
Empyrean, on which the features of the blessed are visible 
to Dante. In the succeeding spheres they are completely 
hidden in the radiance v^ithin which the spirits are enclosed. 

23. v. 129. Mercury is veiled by the Sun. 


'Justinian tells of his own life, — The story of the Ko- 
man Eagle. — Spirits in the planet Mercury. — Romeo, 

" After Constantine turned the Eagle coun- 
ter to the course of the heavens which it had 
followed behind the ancient who took to wife 
Lavinia/ a hundred and a hundred years and 
more ^ the bird of God held itself on the verge 
of Europe, near to the mountains^ from which it 
first came forth, and there it governed the world 
beneath the shadow of its sacred wings, from 
hand to hand, and thus changing, descended 
unto mine. Caesar I was,'* and am Justinian, 

1. V. 3. Constantine, transferring the seat of Empire 
from Rome to Byzantium, carried the Eagle from West to 
East, counter to the course which it took with Aeneas from 
Troy to Italy, where he was to become the father of the 
Roman people, and the founder of the Empire of whose 
power the bird of God was the symbol. 

2. V. 4. From A. D. 324, when the transfer was begun, 
to 527, when Justinian became Emperor. 

3. V. 6. Of the Troad, opposite Byzantium. 

4. V. 10. On earth Emperor, but in Heaven earthly 
dignities exist no longer. 

42 PARADISE [vv. 11-27 

who, by will of the primal Love which I feel, 
drew out from among the laws the super- 
fluous and the vain.^ And before I was intent 
on this work, I believed one nature to be in 
Christ, not more,^ and with such faith was I 
content ; but the blessed Agapetus, who was the 
supreme pastor, directed me to the pure faith 
with his words. I believed him ; and that which 
was in his faith I now see clearly, even as thou 
seest that every contradiction is both false and 
true.^ Soon as with the Church I moved my 
feet, it pleased God, through grace, to inspire 
me with this high task, and I gave myself 
wholly to it. And I entrusted my arms to my 
Belisarius, with whom the right hand of Heaven 
was so conjoined that it was a sign that I should 
rest me. 

5. V. 12. The allusion is to Justinian's codification of 
the Roman Law. 

6. V. 14. The divine nature only; this was known 
as the Monophysite or Eutychian heresy. Agapetus was 
Pope for only ten months, in 535—536. He was sent to 
Constantinople by the Gothic King Theodahad, to en- 
deavor to make peace for him with the Emperor. In this 
errand the Pope failed ; but he induced Justinian to depose 
the Pa.triarch of Constantinople, on the ground of his hold- 
ing the Monophysite doctrine, and thus confirmed the claim 
of the Roman Papacy over the Church of the East as well 
as over that of the West. 

7. V. 26. Of the two terms of a contradictory proposi- 
tion one must be true, the other false. 

vv. 28-43] CANTO VI 43 

" Now here to the first question ^ my answer 
comes to the stop ; but its condition constrains 
me to add a sequel to it, in order that thou 
mayst see with how much reason^ he moves 
against the sacrosanct ensign, who appropriates 
it to himself,'° and he too who opposes himself 
to it." See how great virtue has made it worthy 
of reverence." And he began from the hour 
when Pallas " died to give it a kingdom. " Thou 
knowest that it made its abode in Alba for three 
hundred years and more, till at the end when 
the three against the three '^ fought for it still. 
And thou knowest what it did, from the wrong 
of the Sabine women down to the woe of Lu- 
cretia, in seven kings, conquering the neighbor- 
ing peoples round about. Thou knowest what 
it did when borne by the illustrious Romans 

8. V. 28. The question contained in the words, "I 
know not who thou art*' (v. 127). The condition attached 
to the answer was, that Justinian, having said that he was 
emperor, is constrained to speak of the nature and authority 
of the Empire, as symbolized by the eagle its standard. 

9. V. 31. Ironical. The meaning is, ** how wrongly.'* 

10. V. 32. The Ghibelline. 

11. V. 33. The Guelf. 

12. V. 36. Son of Evander, King of Latium, sent by 
his father to aid Aeneas. His death in battle against Turnus 
led to that of Turnus himself, and to the possession of the 
Latin kingdom by Aeneas. 

'3* ^' 39- ^^^ Horatii and Curiatii. 

44 PARADISE [vv. 44-65 

against Brennus, against Pyrrhus, and against 
the other princes and confederates ; whereby 
Torquatus, and Quinctius who was named from 
his neglected locks, the Decii and the Fabii 
acquired the fame which willingly I embalm. It 
struck to earth the pride of the Arabs/'^ who, 
following Hannibal, passed the Alpine rocks 
from which thou, Po, dost glide. Under it, in 
their youth, Scipio and Pompey triumphed, and 
to that hilJ beneath which thou wast born, it 
seemed bitter.'^ Afterward, near the time when 
all Heaven willed to bring the world to its own 
serene mood, Caesar, by the will of Rome, took 
it ; and what it did from the Var even to the 
Rhine, the I sere beheld, and the Saone, and 
the Seine beheld, and every valley whence the 
Rhone is filled. That which it did after it came 
forth from Ravenna, and leaped the Rubicon, 
was of such flight that neither tongue nor pen 
could follow it. Toward Spain it wheeled its 
troop ; then toward Durazzo, and smote Phar- 

14. V. 49. In Dante's time the territory of Carthage 
was held by the Arabs, and, with characteristic disregard of 
the anachronism, he calls the Carthaginians of old by the 
name of the modern race, which happens to suit the rhyme. 

15. V. 54. According to popular tradition, recorded by 
Giovanni Villani, Cronica, i. 37, Fiesole, which lies on a hill 
overlooking Florence, had been the headquarters of Catiline's 
army, and was destroyed by the Romans after his defeat and 

vv. 66-83] CANTO VI 45 

salia so that to the warm Nile the pain was felt. 
It saw again Antandros and the Simois, whence 
it had set forth, and there where Hector lies ; '^ 
and ill for Ptolemy then it shook itself. Thence 
it swooped flashing down on Juba ; then wheeled 
again unto your west, where it heard the Pom- 
peian trumpet. Of what it did with its next 
standard-bearer/7 Brutus with Cassius howls in 
Hell ; and it made Modena and Perugia woful. 
Because of it the sad Cleopatra is still weeping, 
who, fleeing before it, took from the asp sudden 
and black death. With him it ran far as the 
Red Sea shore ; with him it set the world in 
such peace that his temple was locked up on 

" But what the ensign which makes me speak 
had done before, and after was to do, through 

1 6. V. 68. It was from Antandros, on the coast of 
Troas, that Aeneas set sail with his followers for Italy. 
Aeneid, iii. 5. The Simois ran not far off. 

J 7* V. 73. Augustus. 

18. V. 81. The temple of Janus — of which the doors 
were closed only in time of peace, for in time of war the 
god was supposed to be absent with the armies — had been 
locked up but twice during the whole life of the Roman Re- 
public. But under Augustus they were closed three times ; 
and in one of those periods when ** Heaven willed to bring 
the world to its own serene mood '* (v. 56) it has been sup- 
posed that Christ was born ; and then, ** no war, or batde's 
sound was heard the world around.'* 

46 PARADISE [v v. 84-105 

the mortal realm which is subject to it, becomes 
in appearance little and obscure, if it be looked 
on in the hand of the third Caesar '^ with clear 
eye and with pure affection ; for the Living 
Justice which inspires me granted to it, in the 
hand of him of whom I speak, the glory of 
doing vengeance for Its own wrath.^° Now mar- 
vel here at that which I unfold to thee : after- 
ward with Titus it sped to do vengeance for the 
vengeance of the ancient sin.^' 

"And when the Lombard tooth bit the Holy 
Church, under its wings Charlemagne, conquer- 
ing, succored her. 

"Now canst thou judge of such as those 
whom I accused above, and of their misdeeds, 
which are the cause of all your ills. To the 
public ensign one opposes the yellow lilies," 
and the other appropriates it to a party, so that 
it is hard to see which is most at fault. Let 
the Ghibellines practice, let them practice their 
art under another ensign, for this one he ever 
follows ill who parts justice and it. And let 

19. V. 86. Tiberius. 

20. V. 90. It was under the authority of Rome that 
Christ was crucified, whereby the sin of Adam was avenged. 

21. V. 93. Vengeance was taken on the Jews for the 
vengeance which they had wrought for the sin of Adam, be- 
cause, although the death of Christ was divinely ordained, 
their crime in it was none the less. 

22. v. 100. The fleur-de-lys of France. 

vv. 106-127] CANTO VI 47 

not this new Charles ^' strike it down with his 
Guelfs, but let him fear the talons, which have 
stripped the fell from a loftier lion. Many a 
time ere now the sons have wept for the sin of 
the father ; and let him not believe that for his 
lilies God will change His arms.^* 

" This little star is adorned with good spirits 
who have been active in order that honor and 
fame may follow them. And when the desires 
thus deviating mount thitherward, the rays of 
the true love must needs mount upward less 
living.''^ But in the equal measure of our wages 
with our desert is part of our joy, because we 
see them neither less nor greater. Hereby the 
Living Justice makes our affection so sweet 
within us, that it can never be bent aside to 
any iniquity. Divers voices make sweet melo- 
dies ; thus in our life divers seats render sweet 
harmony among these wheels. ""^ 

" And within the present pearl shines the 

23. V. 106. Charles II., King of Naples, son of Charles 
of Anjou. 

24. V. III. That God will change the emblem or- 
dained by Him as the armorial ensign of the Empire which 
was His instrument for the government of men on earth. 

25. V. 117. When the desires are set on fame and 
worldly honors the love of things divine is less living in the 

26. V. 125. The different grades of the blessed mani- 
fest in the circling spheres. 

48 PARADISE [vv. 120-142 

light of Romeo, whose beautiful and great work 
was ill requited.''^ But the Proven9als who 
wrought against him have not the laugh ; and 
forsooth he goes an ill road who makes harm 
for himself ^^ of another's good deed. Four 
daughters, and each a queen, had Raymond 
Berenger, and Romeo, a humble person and a 
pilgrim, did this ^^ for him. And then crooked 
words moved him to demand a reckoning of 
this just man, who had rendered to him seven 
and five for ten. Thereon he departed, poor 
and old, and if the world but knew the heart 
he had, while begging his livelihood bit by bit, 
much as it lauds him it would laud him more." 

27. V. 129. According to Giovanni Villani (vi. 90), 
one Romeo, a pilgrim to Rome (whence, perhaps, his appel- 
lation), came to the court of Raymond Berenger IV., Count 
of Provence (who died in 1245), and winning the count's 
favor, served him with such wisdom and fidelity that by his 
means his master's revenues were greatly increased, and his 
four daughters married to four kings, — Margaret, to Louis 
IX., St. Louis, of France ; Eleanor, to Henry III. of Eng- 
land ; Sanzia, to Richard, Earl of Cornwall (brother of 
Henry III.), elected King of the Romans ; and Beatrice, to 
Charles of Anjou (brother of Louis IX. ), King of Naples and 
Sicily. The Proven9al nobles, jealous of Romeo, procured 
his dismissal, and he departed, with his mule and his pil- 
grim's staff and scrip, and was never seen more. 

28. V. 132. By envy or calumny. 

29. V. 134. The making each a queen. 


Discourse of Beatrice. — The Fall of Man, — The 
scheme of his Redemption. 

" OsANNA sanctus Deus Sabaothy sup erillus trans 
claritate tua felices ignes horum malachoth I " ^ — 
thus, revolving to its own melody, that sub- 
stance,^ upon which a double light is twinned,^ 
was seen by me to sing ; and it and the others 
moved in their dance, and like swiftest sparks 
veiled themselves to me with sudden distance/ 
I was in doubt, and was saying : " Tell her, tell 
her," within myself, " tell her," I was saying, 

1. V. 3. " Hosanna ! Holy God of Sabaoth, illumina- 
ting from above with thy brightness the blessed fires of these 
realms.'* The Hebrew word malachoth Dante found, in- 
terpreted as regnorum, in St. Jerome's so-called Prologus 
galeatusy prefixed to the Vulgate. 

2. V. 5. Substance, as a scholastic term, signifies a be- 
ing subsisting by itself with a quiddity, or specific nature, of 
its own. ** Substantiae nomen significat essentiam cui com- 
petit sic esse, id est per se esse ; quod tamen esse non est 
ipsa ejus essentia." S. T. i. 3. 5. 

3. V. 6. The light of his beatitude doubled by that of 
his joy in enlightening Dante ; see Canto v. i 31-137. 

4. V. 9. Returning to the Empyrean, their abode. 

50 PARADISE [vv. 12-34 

" my Lady, who slakes my thirst with her sweet 
distillings ; " but that reverence which is wholly 
mistress of me, only by be and by ice,^ bowed 
me again like one who drowses. Short while 
did Beatrice suffer me thus, and she began, irra- 
diating me with a smile such as would make a 
man in the fire happy: "According to my infal- 
lible advisement,^ how a just vengeance could 
be justly avenged has set thee thinking ; but I 
will quickly loose thy mind : and do thou listen, 
for my words will make thee the gift of a great 

" By not enduring a curb for his own good 
upon the power which wills, that man who was 
not born, damning himself, damned all his off- 
spring ; wherefore the human race lay sick down 
there ^ for many centuries, in great error, until 
it pleased the Word of God to descend where 
He, by the sole act of His eternal love, united 
with Himself in person the nature which had 
estranged itself from its Maker. 

"Now turn thy sight to that which now I 

5. V. 14. Only by the sound of her name. 

6. V. 19. Beatrice sees Dante's thoughts reflected in the 
mind of God on which she is gazing, gaining therefrom un- 
erring information of the perplexity to which the words of 
Justinian (Canto vi. 90-93), concerning the vengeance taken 
for the vengeance, had occasioned. 

7. V. 29. On earth. 

vv. 35-6i] CANTO VII 51 

say : This nature, thus united with its Maker, 
was pure and good such as it was created; but 
by itself it had been banished from Paradise, 
because it turned aside from the way of truth 
and from its own life. The penalty therefore 
which the cross afforded, if it be measured by 
the nature assumed, — none ever so justly 
stung ; and, so, none was ever of such great 
wrong, if we regard the Person who suffered, 
in whom this nature was contracted. There- 
fore from one act issued things diverse ; for 
one death was pleasing to God and to the 
Jews : at it the earth trembled and the heaven 
was opened. Henceforth it ought no longer 
to seem difficult to thee, when it is said that 
a just vengeance was afterward avenged by a 
just court.^ 

" But I see now thy mind bound up, from 
thought to thought, within a knot, the loosing 
of which is awaited with great desire. Thou 
sayest : ' I discern clearly that which I hear ; 
but why God willed only this mode for our re- 
demption is hidden from me.* This decree, 
brother, lies buried to the eyes of every one 
whose wit is not matured in the flame of love. 
Yet, inasmuch as on this mark there is much 

8. V. 51. The court of the Empire, with rightful juris- 
diction over all mankind, "for the whole human race was 
punished in the flesh of Christ.'* De Monarchia, ii. 13, 42. 

52 PARADISE [vv. 62-82 

gazing, and little is discerned, I will tell why- 
such mode was the most worthy. The Divine 
Goodness, which from Itself spurns all envy,^ 
burning in Itself so sparkles that It displays the 
eternal beauties. That which distils immedi- 
ately '° from It, thereafter has no end, for when 
It seals Its imprint can never be removed. 
That which rains down immediately from It is 
wholly free, because it is not subject to the 
power of the new things." It '^ is the most con- 
formed to It, and therefore pleases It the most ; 
for the Holy Ardor which irradiates everything 
is most living in what is most like Itself. With 
all these things '^ the human creature is advan- 
taged, and if one fail, he needs must fall from 
his nobility. Sin alone is that which disfran- 
chises him, and makes him unlike the Supreme 
Good, so that he is little illumined by Its light ; 
and to his dignity he never returns, unless, 

9. V. 65. *' Envy '* signifies here the contrary of love. 

10. V. 67. Without the intervention of a second cause. 

11. V. 72. That is, not subject to the power of the 
heavens moved by the angelic Intelligences, which are new 
things in comparison with that First Cause by which they 
themselves were created. 

12. V. 73. That which proceeds immediately from the 
Divine Goodness. 

13. \. ']6. That is, with immediate creation, with im- 
mortality, with free will, with likeness to God, and the love 
of God for it. Compare Canto v. 19—24. 

vv. 83-106] CANTO VII 53 

where fault empties, he fill up with just penal- 
ties against evil delight. Your nature, when 
it sinned totally in its seed,'* was removed from 
these dignities, even as from Paradise ; nor 
could it recover them, if thou considerest full 
subtly, by any way, without passing by one of 
these fords : — either that God, solely by His 
courtesy, should have remitted ; or that man 
by himself should have made satisfaction for his 
folly.'^ Fix now thine eye within the abyss of 
the eternal counsel, as closely fastened on my 
words as thou art able. Man within his own 
limits could never make satisfaction, through 
not being able to descend in humility, by sub- 
sequent obedience, so far as in his disobedience 
he had intended to ascend ; and this is the rea- 
son why man was shut off from power to make 
satisfaction by himself. Therefore it was need- 
ful for God with His own ways '^ to restore man 
to his perfect life, — I mean with one way, or 
else with both. But because the deed of the 

14. V. 86. Its seed was Adam, and all human nature 
sinned in his fall. 

^5* ^' 93- "I applied my heart ... to know the 
wickedness of folly.'* Ecclesiastes vii. 25. 

16. V. 103. ** All the paths of the Lord are mercy and 
truth." Psalm xxv. 10. Truth is to be understood here 
as jusdce. ** The justice of God which establishes the order 
in things conformed to rule of his wisdom, which is his law, 
is properly named truth." S. T. i. 21. 2. 

54 PARADISE [vv. 107-132 

doer is so much the more prized, the more it 
displays of the goodness of the heart whence 
it issues, the Divine Goodness which sets its 
impress on the world was content to proceed 
by all Its ways '^ to lift you up again ; nor be- 
tween the last night and the first day has there 
been or will there be so exalted and so magni- 
ficent a procedure either by the one way or by 
the other. For God was more bounteous '^ in 
giving Himself to make man sufficient to up- 
lift himself, than if He only of Himself had 
remitted ; and all the other modes were scanty 
in respect to justice, if the Son of God had not 
humbled Himself to become incarnate. 

" Now to fulfil for thee every desire, I return 
to a certain place to make it clear, in order that 
there thou mayst see as I do. Thou sayest : 
* I see the water, I see the fire, the air, and the 
earth, and all their mixtures come to corrup- 
tion, and endure short while, and yet these 
things were created things ; ' so that, if what I 
have said '^ has been true, they ought to be se- 
cure against corruption. The Angels, brother, 
and the pure country in which thou art, may 
be called created, just as they are, in their 

17. V. no. Its paths of mercy and of justice. 

18. V. 115. Showed greater mercy. 

19. V. 128. In regard to that which distils immediately 
from God. See \, 6j, 

vv. 133-148] CANTO VII 55 

entire being ; but the elements which thou hast 
named, and those things which are made of 
them, are informed by a created virtue.^° The 
matter of which they consist was created ; the 
informing virtue in these stars which go round 
about them was created. The ray and the mo- 
tion of the holy lights draw out from its poten- 
tiate elements ^' the soul of every brute and of 
the plants ; but the Supreme Benignity inspires 
your life without intermediary, and enamors it 
of Itself so that ever after it desires It. And 
hence " thou further canst infer your resurrec- 
tion, if thou reflect how the human flesh was 
made when the first parents were both made." 

20. V. 135. The elements are informed, that is, receive 
their specific being, not immediately from God, but mediately 
through the angelic Intelligences from whom the spheres de- 
rive the virtue which informs them. 

21. V. 140. Literally, '* from potentiate compound'* 
(^complession potenziata^y that is, from the various matter 
endowed with the potentiality of becoming informed by the 
vegetative and the sensitive soul. In the Convito (iv. 25, 
36) Dante explains complessione as gli elementi legally ** the 
united elements." 

22. V. 145. From the principle that what proceeds im- 
mediately from God is immortal, the resurrection of the body 
is to be inferred, God having Himself created the flesh as 
well as the spirit of man. 


Ascent to the Heaven of Venus, — Spirits of Lovers, 
— Source of the order and the varieties in mortal things. 

The world in its peril ' was wont to believe 
that the beautiful Cyprian^ revolving in the 
third epicycle ^ rayed out mad love ; wherefore 
the ancient people in their ancient error not 
only unto her did honor with sacrifice and with 
.votive cry, but they honored Dione ^ also and 
Cupid, the one as her mother, the other as her 
son, and they said that he had sat in Dido's 
lap ; 5 and from her, from whom I take my be- 
ginning, they took the name of the star which 

1 . V. I . In heathen times. 

2. V. 2. Venus, so called from her birth in Cyprus. 

3. V. 3. In the astronomay of the ancients the term epi- 
cycle designated a circle having its centre on the circumfer- 
ence of another circle. In order to account for the apparent 
motions of the planets, Ptolemy, whose astronomical system 
prevailed till overthrown by the discoveries of Copernicus, 
adopted the hypothesis that each planet moved in an epicycle, 
upon the great circle of the heavens, which revolved around 
the earth. 

4. V. 7. Dione, daughter of Oceanus and Thetis, 
mother of Venus. 

5. V. 9. Under the semblance of Ascanius, as Virgil 
tells in the first book of the Aeneid. 

vv. 12-33] CANTO VIII 57 

the sun woos, now behind her now before.^ I 
was not aware of the ascent to it ; but of being 
in it, my Lady gave me full assurance, whom I 
saw become more beautiful. 

And as a spark is seen within a flame, and as 
within a voice a voice is distinguished when one 
is steady and the other goes and returns, I saw 
within that light other lamps moving in a circle, 
speeding more or less, according to the mea- 
sure, I believe, of their eternal vision. From 
a cold cloud winds, whether visible or not,^ 
never descended so swiftly, that they would not 
seem impeded and slow to him who had seen 
these divine lights coming to us, leaving the 
circling begun first in the exalted Seraphim.^ 
And within those who appeared most in front 
was sounding Hosanna^ in such wise that never 
since have I been without desire of hearing it 
again. Then one drew nearer to us, and alone 
began : " We all are ready at thy pleasure, that 
thou mayst have joy of us. With one circle, 

6. V. 1 2. According as Venus is morning or evening 
star. Literally, **now at her nape, now at her brow." 

7. V. 23. Whether visible as lightning, according to 
Aristotle's doctrine ** that lightning was simply wind ren- 
dered visible by ignition" (Moore, Studies, i. 132) ; or 
invisible blasts. 

8. V. 27. The circling of these spirits corresponds with 
the circular dance of the Seraphim, the most exalted of the 
Orders of the Angels, in the Empyrean. 

58 PARADISE [vv. 34-49 

with one circling, and with one thirst,^ we re- 
volve with the celestial Princes/° to whom thou 
in the world once didst say : ' Te whose intelli- 
gence moves the third heaven ; * " and we are so 
full of love that, in order to please thee, a little 
quiet will not be less sweet to us/* 

After my eyes had offered themselves rever- 
ently to my Lady, and she had made them of 
herself contented and assured, they turned again 
to the light which had promised so much ; and : 
" Say who ye are," was my utterance, imprinted 
with great affection. Ah ! how much greater 
in quantity and quahty" did I see it become, 
through the new gladness which was added to 
its gladnesses when I spoke ! Thus become, 
it said to me : '^ " The world held me below 

9. V. 35. One circle in space, one circling in eternity, 
one thirst for the vision of God. 

10. V. 34. The third in ascending order of the hierarchy 
of the Angels, the Intelligences or motors of the heaven of 

11. V. 37. This is the first verse of the first Canzone 
of the Convito. 

12. V. 46. That is, in size and brightness. 

13. V. 49. It is Charles Martel, eldest son of Charles 
II. of Naples, vv^ho speaks. He was born probably in 1271 ; 
he married in 1291 Clemence the daughter of the Emperor 
Rudolph I. ; in the spring of 1 29! he was at Florence for 
more than twenty days, and at this time he may have be- 
come acquainted with Dante. Great honor was done him 
by the Florentines, and he showed much love to them, so 

vv. 50-62] CANTO VIII 59 

but short while ; and had it been longer much 
evil had not been which will befall.'* My joy, 
which rays around me, holds me concealed from 
thee, and hides me like a creature swathed in its 
own silk. Much didst thou love me, and hadst 
good reason why ; for had I stayed below I had 
shown thee of my love more than the leaves. 
That left bank which is bathed by the Rhone, 
after it has mingled with the Sorgue, awaited 
me' in due time for its lord ; '^ as well as that 
horn of Ausonia '^ which has for suburbs Bari, 
and Gaeta, and Catona,''' from where the Tronto 

that he won favor from everybody, says Villani. He died 
in 1295. 

14. V. 51. Literally, **had it been more, much of ill 
shall be which should not be." These words probably refer 
to the fact that, on the death of Charles II. in 1309, the 
kingdom of Naples, to which Charles Martel would have 
succeeded, was secured, to the exclusion of his son. Carlo 
Roberto, by his brother Robert, who brought many ills upon 
the country. See verses 76—84. 

15. v. 60. Charles of Anjou, grandfather of Charles 
Martel, had received that part of Provence which lies east 
of the Rhone as dowry of his wife Beatrice, the youngest 
daughter of Raymond Berenger. Cf. vi. 133-136. 

16. V. 61. A name for Italy of uncertain derivation, 
used in classical times only by the poets. 

17. V. 62. Bari on the Adriatic, Gaeta on the Medi- 
terranean, and Catona at the toe of Italy, together with the 
two rivers named, give roughly the boundaries of the King- 
dom of Naples. 

6o PARADISE [w. 63-75 

and the Verde disgorge into the sea. Already 
was shining on my brow the crown of that land 
which the Danube waters after it abandons its 
German banks ; '^ and the fair Trinacria '^ (which 
between Pachynus and Pelorus, on the gulf 
which receives greatest annoy from Eurus, is 
darkened, not by Typhoeus but by nascent sul- 
phur) would be still awaiting its kings sprung 
through me from Charles and Rudolph/° if 
evil rule, which always embitters the subject 
people, had not moved Palermo to shout: 
' Die ! Die I'" And if my brother had forenoted 

18. V. 66. The mother of Charles Martel was sister of 
Ladislaus IV., King of Hungary. He died without offspring, 
and Charles II. claimed the kingdom by right of his wife. 

19. v. 6y. Sicily; the gulf darkened by sulphurous 
fiimes is the Bay of Calabria, which lying between Cape 
Pachynus, the extreme southeastern point of the island, and 
Cape Pelorus, the extreme northeastern, is exposed to the 
full violence of Eurus or the East wind. Clouds of smoke 
from Aetna sometimes darken it. The eruptions of Aetna 
were ascribed by Ovid (^Metam., v. 346—353) to the strug- 
gles of Typhoeus, one of the Giants who made war upon 
the Gods, and who, being overthrown by Zeus with a thun- 
derbolt, was buried under Mount Aetna. Ovid's verses 
suggested this description. 

20. V. 72. From his father, Charles II., or his grand- 
father, Charles of Anjou, and from the Emperor Rudolph of 
Hapsburg, the father of his wife. 

21. V. 75. By the insurrection which began at Palermo 
in 1 282, — the famous Sicilian Vespers, — the French were 

vv. 76-89] CANTO VIII 61 

this," he would ere now be flying from the 
greedy poverty of Catalonia, in order that it 
might not do him harm : for truly it is needful 
for him or for some other to provide, so that 
on his laden bark more load be not put. His 
own nature, which descended niggardly from a 
liberal one, would have need of such a soldiery 
as should not care for putting into a chest." ^^ 

" Because I believe that the deep joy which 
thy speech, my lord, infuses in me, is seen by 
thee there where , every good has end and has 
beginning,^"* even as I see it, it is the more 
grateful to me ; and this also I hold dear, that 

driven from the island, and the rule over it of Charles of 
Anjou was brought to an end. The sovereignty, thus vacant, 
was conferred by the people on Peter III. of Aragon, as 
being the husband of the daughter of Manfred, the illegiti- 
mate son of the Emperor Frederick II. 

22. V. 76. <* Had my brother, before coming to the 
throne, noted how evil rule sets the hearts of the people 
against their rulers, he would already be getting rid of the 
greedy crowd of his impoverished followers.** This brother 
was Robert, the third son of Charles II. He had been kept 
as a hostage in Catalonia from 1288 to 1295, and when he 
became King of Naples in 1309 he introduced into his ser- 
vice many Catalonian officials. The words of Charles Mar- 
tel are prophetic of the evils resulting from the avarice of 
King Robert and the greed of his courtiers. 

23. V. 84. Officials who would not, by oppression of 
the subjects, seek to fill their own coffers. 

24. V. 87. Is seen in the mind of God. 

62 PARADISE [vv. 90-110 

thou discernest it, gazing upon God.^^ Thou 
hast made me glad ; and so now do thou make 
clear to me (since in speaking thou hast moved 
me to doubt) how from sweet seed can issue 
bitterness." This I to him ; and he to me : 
" If I can make one truth plain to thee, thou 
wilt hold thy face toward that which thou ask- 
est, as thou dost now hold thy back. The Good 
which revolves and contents all the realm that 
thou art ascending, makes its foresight to be a 
power in these great bodies.^^ And not only are 
the natures foreseen in the Mind which by it- 
self is perfect, but they together with their well- 
being.^7 Wherefore whatsoever this bow shoots 
falls disposed to its foreseen endj even as a 
thing directed to its aim. Were this not so, 
the heaven through which thou art journeying 
would produce its effects in such wise that they 
would not be works of art but ruins ; and that 
cannot be, if the Intelligences which move these 
stars are not defective, and defective the Prime 

25. V. 90. It is also dear to me, that thou discernest 
that my joy is the greater because thou knowest it. 

26. V. 99. God causes his foresight, or providence, to 
become a power in the spheres of Heaven, by which their 
respective influences, acting upon the objects or natures sub- 
ject to them, operate to produce the foreordained effects. 

27. V. 103. Not only are all natures — that is, all created 
things — foreseen, but also the order of nature by which all 
things are disposed to their respective ends. 

vv. 111-124] CANTO VIII 63 

Intelligence in that it did not make them per- 
fect/^ Dost thou wish that this truth be made 
still clearer to thee ? " And I : " No, truly ; 
because I see it to be impossible that Nature 
should weary in that which is needful." ^^ 
Whereupon he again : " Now, say, would it be 
worse for man on earth if he were not a citi- 
zen ? " 2° " Yes," answered I, " and here I ask 
not the reason." ^^ "And can he be so, unless 
he live there below diversely for diverse du- 
ties ? 2^ No ; if your master ^^ writes well of 
this." Thus he came deducing far as here ; 
then he concluded : " Therefore the roots of 
your works must needs be diverse ; ^^ on which 
account one is born Solon, and another Xerxes, 

28. V. III. Defect in the subordinate Intelligences 
would imply defect in God, which is impossible. 

29. V. 114. It is impossible that the order of nature 
should fail, that order being the design of God in creation. 

30. V. 116. That is, united with other men in society. 

31. V. 1 17. For the fact is evident that man is by na- 
ture a social animal, and cannot attain his true end except as 
a member of a community. 

32. V. 119. Society cannot exist without diversity in 
the functions of its members. 

33. V. 120. Aristotle, ** the master of human reason.'* 
The whole of this discourse is derived from various passages 
in the Ethics and Politics of Aristotle. 

34. V. 123. Human dispositions, the roots of human 
works, must be diverse in order that those works may be 

64 PARADISE [vv. 125-144 

another Melchisedech, and another he who, fly- 
ing through the air, lost his son.^^ The circu- 
lar nature, which is the seal of the mortal wax, 
performs its art well, but does not distinguish 
one inn from another.^^ Hence it happens that 
Esau differs in seed from Jacob, and Quirinus 
comes from so mean a father that he is ascribed 
to Mars. A begotten nature would always 
make its course like its begetters, if the divine 
foresight did not overcome. 

" Now that which was behind thee is before 
thee, but that thou mayst know that I have 
joy in thee, I will that thou cloak thyself with 
a corollary .37 Ever does a nature, if it find 
fortune discordant with itself, like every other 
seed out of its region, come to ill result. And 
if the world there below would ^x attention 
on the foundation which Nature lays, following 
that, it would have its people good.^^ But ye 

35. V. 126. Daedalus and Icarus. 

36. V. 129. The circular nature, that is, the world of 
the spheres, pours down in its revolutions its various influ- 
ences without discrimination of the individuals upon whom 
they fall ; hence sons differ in their dispositions from their 

37. V. 138. This additional statement completes the 
instruction, as a cloak completes the clothing of a body. 

38. V.I 44. If men were but brought up and employed 
in accordance with their natural dispositions, the world would 
be the better off. 

vv. 145-148] CANTO VIII 65 

wrest to religion one who shall have been born 
to gird on the sword, and ye make a king of 
one who is for preaching ; so that your track is 
outside of the road." ^^ 

39. V. 148. The path you follow is not the way of 
nature. The condensed argument of the reply of Charles 
Martel to Dante's question is made the more difficult to fol- 
low, because of the various meanings in which the word 
nature is employed. First, in v. 100 natures signify the 
products of Nature in its generic sense ; in v. 114 Na- 
ture stands for the personified order of the created world ; 
in V. 127 ** the circular nature '' is equivalent to the system 
of the spheres ; in w. 133 and 139 nature is used for the 
individual creature, though in the latter instance it is held 
by many commentators to signify Nature with the same 
meaning which it has in v. 142, where the word is employed 
in its generic and personified sense. 


The Heaven of Venus, — Conversation of Dante with 
Cunizza da Romano, — With Folco of Marseilles, — 
Rahab. — Avarice of the Papal Court, 

After thy Charles, O beautiful Clemence/ 
had enlightened me, he told me of the frauds 
which his seed must experience ; ^ but he said : 
** Keep silence, and let the years revolve ; " 
so that I can say nothing, except that just 
lamentation shall follow on your wrongs.^ 

And now the life of that holy light had 
turned again unto the Sun which fills it, as that 
Good which suffices for every thing. Ah, souls 
deceived, and creatures impious, who from such 
Good turn away your hearts, directing your 
foreheads unto vanity ! 

And lo ! another of those splendors made to- 
wards me, and by brightening outwardly was 
signifying its will to please me. The eyes of 

1 . V. I . The widow of Charles Martel. 

2. V. 2. Frauds by which his son Caroberto was de- 
prived of his rights of succession to the throne of Naples. 

3. V. 8. Those who have done the wrong shall justly 
lament therefor. This seems to be a mere general affirma- 
tion, for no special facts are known to justify it in this case. 

vv. i6-35] CANTO IX 67 

Beatrice, which were fixed upon me, as before,* 
made me assured of dear assent to my desire. 
" Pray, blessed spirit," I said, " afford speedy 
satisfaction to my wish, and give me proof that 
what I think I can reflect on thee." ^ Whereon 
the light which was still new to me, from out 
its depth, wherein before ^ it was singing, pro- 
ceeded, as one whom doing good delights : 

" In that part ^ of the wicked Italian land which 
lies between Rialto and the founts of the Brenta 
and the Piave, rises a hill,^ and mounts not very 
high, wherefrom a torch descended which made 
a great assault upon that district. From one 
root both I and it were born ; I was called 
Cunizza ; and I am refulgent here because the 
light of this star overcame me. But gladly do 
I grant myself indulgence for the occasion of 
my lot, and it does not trouble me ; ^ which per- 

4. V. 17. See Canto viii. 42. 

5. V. 21. That thou, gazing on the mind of God, seest 
therein my thoughts reflected from it. 

6. V. 23. See Canto viii. 28—30. 

7. V. 25. The March of Treviso, lying between Ven- 
ice (Rialto) and the Alps. 

8. V. 28. The hill on which stood the little stronghold 
of Romano, the birthplace of the tyrant Azzolino, or Ezze- 
lino ( 1 194-1259), whom Dante had seen in Hell (Canto 
xii. 109) punished for his horrible misdeeds in the river of 
boiling blood. Cunizza was his sister. 

9. V. 35. The sin which has Umited the capacity of 

68 PARADISE [w. 36-50 

haps would seem a hard saying to your vulgar. 
Of this resplendent and precious jewel of our 
kingdom/" which is nearest to me, great fame 
has remained, and ere it die away this hundredth 
year shall yet come round fivt times. See if 
man ought to make himself excellent, so that 
the first life may leave another ! " And this 
the present crowd, which the Tagliamento and 
the Adige shut in," considers not ; nor yet, 
though it be scourged, does it repent. But it 
will soon come to pass that because her people 
are stubborn against duty,'^ Padua at the marsh 
will change the water which bathes Vicenza. 
And where the Sile and the Cagnano unite, one 
lords it, and goes with his head high, for catch- 
bliss, and has determined the low grade of Cunizza in Para- 
dise, is pardoned to herself and forgotten, and she, like Pic- 
carda, wishes only for that blessedness which she has. 

10. V. 38. Folco, or Folquet, of Marseilles, once a dis- 
solute and famous troubadour, then bishop of Toulouse. 
He died in 123 1. 

11. V. 42. Another, that is, the enduring life of good 

12. V. 44. The people of the region where Cunizza 

13. V. 48. During the years in which Dante was writ- 
ing his poem the Paduan Guelfs, resisting the Emperor, to 
whom they owed duty, were defeated more than once, near 
Vicenza, by Can Grande, the Imperial Vicar, staining with 
their blood the waters of the marsh which the Bacchiglione 
forms near Verona. 

vv. 51-62] CANTO IX 69 

ing whom the web is already made/'^ Feltro 
will yet weep the crime of its impious shepherd, 
which will be so shameful, that, for a like, none 
ever entered Malta.'^ Too large would be the 
vat which should receive the Ferrarese blood, 
and weary he who should weigh it ounce by 
ounce, which this courteous priest will give to 
show himself of his party ; '^ and such gifts will 
be conformed to the living of the country. 
Above are mirrors, ye call them Thrones,'^ 
wherefrom God in judgment shines on us, so 

14. V. 5 1 . The Sile and the Cagnano unite at Treviso, 
whose lord, Riccardo da Camino, was assassinated in 13 12. 
Riccardo was the son of** the good Gherardo," mentioned 
in Purgatory, xvi. 121— 138; and by some early authori- 
ties he is said to have married Giovanna, the daughter of 
Nino de' Visconti, of whom her father speaks. Purgatory, 
viii. JO— J 2. 

15. V. 54. An act of treachery in 13 14 on the part of 
Alessandro Novello, the Bishop and Lord of Feltre, in de- 
livering up certain Ghibelline refugees from Ferrara, whence 
they had fled after failing in a conspiracy. Some of them 
were beheaded and others hanged. This breach of faith was 
so vile that in the prison called Malta no such crime as his 
was ever punished. There is great difference among the 
early conmientators as to the locality of Malta. 

16. v. 59. The designation of *' The Paity " was ap- 
propriated by the Guelfs. 

17. V. 61. The Thrones were the third order of tlie 
Angelic Hierarchy, and according to St. Gregory {^HomiL, 
34), that through which God executes his judgments. 

70 PARADISE [vv. 63-81 

that these words seem good to us." '^ Here she 
was silent, and had to me the semblance of 
being turned elsewhither by the wheel in which 
she set herself as she was before.'^ 

The other joy, which was already known 
to me as an illustrious thing,^° became to my 
sight like a fine ruby whereon the sun should 
strike. Through joy effulgence is gained there 
on high, even as a smile here ; but below ^' 
the shade darkens outwardly, as the mind is 

" God sees everything, and thy vision, blessed 
spirit, is in Him,*' said I, " so that no wish can 
steal itself away from thee. Thy voice, then, 
which forever charms the heavens, together with 
the song of those devout fires which make a 
cowl for themselves with their six wings,^* why 
does it not satisfy my desires ? Surely I should 
not wait for thy request if I in-theed myself, 
as thou thyself in-meest." ^^ " The greatest 

18. V. 63. Because we see reflected from the Thrones 
the judgment of God about to fall on the guilty. 

19. V. 66. See Canto viii. 19-21, and 34-35. 

20. V. 68. By the words of Cunizza, verses 37—40. 

21. V. 71. In Hell. 

22. V. 78. The Seraphim, who with their wings cover 
themselves. See Isaiah vi. 2. 

23. V. 81. If I saw thee inwardly as thou seest me. 
Dante invents the words he uses here, and they are no less 
unfamiliar in Italian than in English. 

vv. 82-98] CANTO IX 71 

valley in which the water spreads," ^* began then 
his words, " except of that sea which garlands 
the earth, extends between its discordant shores 
so far counter to the sun, that it makes a meri- 
dian where first it is wont to make the hori- 
zon.^5 I ^as a dweller on the shore of that 
valley, between the Ebro and the Macra,^^ 
which, with short course, divides the Genoese 
from the Tuscan. With almost the same sun- 
set and the same sunrise sit Buggea and the city 
whence I was, which once made its harbor warm 
with its own blood.""^ That people to whom 
my name was known called me Folco, and this 
heaven is imprinted by me, as I was by it. For 
the daughter of Belus,""^ wronging both Sichaeus 
and Creiisa, burned not more than I, so long 

24. V. 82. The Mediterranean. 

25. V. 87. In the rude system of geography current in 
Dante's day the Mediterranean was held to extend from west 
to east, ** counter to the sun," from the Pillars of Hercules 
to Jerusalem, over ninety degrees of longitude. Hence its 
western end, which formed the horizon at sunrise, would be 
under the zenith at noon. 

26. V. 89. Between the Ebro in Spain and the Macra 
in Italy lies Marseilles, under almost the same meridian as 
Buggea (now Bougie), on the African coast, which was for 
a time during the Middle Ages an important port. 

27. V. 93. When the fleet of Caesar defeated that of 
Pompey with its contingent of vessels and soldiers of Mar- 
seilles, B. c. 49. 

28. V. 97. Dido, who by her passion for Aeneas 

72 PARADISE [vv. 99-108 

as it befitted my locks ; ^^ nor she of Rhodope 
who was deluded by Demophoon ; 3° nor Alci- 
des when he had enclosed lole in his heart.^' 
Yet here we repent not, but smile ; not for the 
fault, which does not return to the memory, 
but for the Power which ordained and foresaw. 
Here we gaze on the art which adorns so great 
a work,3^ and we discern the good whereby the 
world below turns to that above.^^ 

wronged alike her dead husband Sichaeus, and Creiisa the 
dead wife of Aeneas. 

29. V. 99. So long as youth lasted. 

30. V. 100. Phyllis, daughter of the king of Thrace, 
who hanged herself, believing herself to have been deserted 
by Demophoon, the son of Theseus. Rhodope was the name 
of the chain of mountains between Thrace and Macedonia. 

31. V. 102. lole was the daughter of a king of Thes- 
saly, and the love of Hercules for her so excited the jealousy 
of his wife Dejaneira that she brought about his death. 

32. V. 107. Which makes the created universe beautiful. 

33. V. 108. The doctrine of this canto, which, as Cu- 
nizza says, may ''appear difficult to the common herd" 
(v. 36), is expressed, although somewhat obscurely, in 
verses 103—108. The mere sensual passion of love, such as 
that which possessed Cunizza and Folco, is in itself a fault ; 
but, under the providence of God exerted through the good 
influences of the Heavens, it may be transmuted into that 
pure love which fills the spirits who manifest themselves in the 
heaven of Venus. The fire of the earthly passion is the type 
of the ardent flame of the spiritual. The spirits, after due 
repentance, having purged away their fault in Purgatory, 
have forgotten it as fault, and smile at recognizing how the 

vv. 109-121] CANTO IX 73 

" But in order that thou mayst bear away all 
fulfilled thy wishes which have been born in 
this sphere, I must needs proceed still further. 
Thou wouldst know who is in this light, which 
beside me here so sparkles, as a sunbeam on 
clear water. Now know that therewithin Ra- 
hab 3^^ is at rest, and being joined with our order 
it is sealed by her in the supreme degree.^^ By 
this heaven, in which the shadow that your 
world makes comes to a point,^^ she was taken 
up before any other soul of the triumph of 
Christ. It was well befitting to leave her in 

Divine power ordained it to be, as it were, the indication and 
measure of their capacity of heavenly love ; and they gaze 
upon the art which makes the creation beautiful, discerning 
the working of the good influences by which the earth, the 
lower world, is brought into harmony with the world on 
high, and that which was imperfect and faulty upon earth 
is turned to good. 

34. v. 116. *< By faith the harlot Rahab perished not 
with them that believed not.** Hebrews xi. 31. See 
Joshua ii. i— 21 ; vi. 17 ; James ii. 25. 

35. v. 117. Our ranks are brightened by her splendor 
more than by any other. 

36. v. 118. The conical shadow of the earth ended, 
according to Ptolemy, at the heaven of Venus. The refer- 
ence to it has an allegorical meaning, the moral shadow of the 
earth being shown in the feebleness of will, the worldly 
ambition, and the inordinate love, which have allotted the 
souls who appear in the three shadowed spheres to the lowest 
grades in Paradise. 

74 PARADISE [w. 122-136 

some heaven, as a palm of the high victory 
which was acquired with one palm and the 
other,^^ because she favored the first glory of 
Joshua in the Holy Land/^ which little touches 
the memory of the Pope.^^ 

" Thy city, which was planted by him who 
first turned his back on his Maker, and whose 
envy has been so bewept,^" produces and scat- 
ters the accursed flower ^^ which has caused the 
sheep and the lambs to stray, because it has 
made a wolf of the shepherd. For this the 
Gospel and the great Doctors are deserted, and 
there is study only of the Decretals,^ as is 

37. V. 122. By the hands nailed to the cross. 

38. V. 125. The first glory of Joshua was the taking 
and destruction of Jericho, to which Rahab lent assistance by 
hiding the messengers whom he had sent to spy out the city. 
See Joshua ii. vi. Joshua was often held by the mediaeval 
expositors of Scripture to be a type of the Saviour, and 
Rahab a type of the Church saved by the blood of Christ, 
of which the scarlet thread which she bound in the vdndow 
was typical. 

39. v. 126. The Pope, Boniface VIII., gave little 
thought to the recovery of the Holy Land. Cf. Hell, 
xxvii. 85-87. 

40. V. 129. *' Through envy of the devil came death 
into the world." Wisdom of Solomon ii. 24. 

41. V. 130. The lily on the florin. 

42. V. 134. The books of the Canon Law, by means 
of the study of which wealth may be acquired. Their mar- 
gins are covered vdth notes, and soiled by continual use. 

vv. 137-142] CANTO IX 75 

apparent by their margins. On this the Pope 
and the Cardinals are intent ; their thoughts go 
not to Nazareth, there where Gabriel spread his 
wings. But the Vatican, and the other chosen 
parts of Rome, which have been the burial 
place for the soldiery that followed Peter, shall 
soon be free from this adultery." ^^ 

43. V. 142. By the removal in 1 305 of the Papal Court 
to Avignon. Possibly, however, this prophecy may refer to 
the coming of that unnamed leader w^ho was to be the libera- 
tor of Italy. 


Ascent to the Sun, — Spirits of the wise^ and the 
learned in theology, — St, Thomas Aquinas. - — He names 
to Dante those who surround him. 

Looking upon His Son with the Love which 
the one and the other eternally breathe forth, 
the primal and ineffable Power made every- 
thing which revolves through the mind or 
through space with such order that he who 
contemplates it cannot be without taste of 
Him.' Lift then thy sight, Reader, with me to 
the lofty wheels, straight to that region where 
the one motion strikes on the other ; * and there 

1. V. 6. All things, as well the spiritual and invisible 
objects of the intelligence as the corporeal and visible objects 
of sense, were made by God the Father, operating through 
the Son, with the love of the Holy Spirit, and made in such 
order that he who contemplates the creation beholds the par- 
tial image of the Creator. 

2. V. 9. At the equinox, the season of Dante's journey, 
the sun in Aries is at the intersection of the ecliptic and the 
equator of the celestial sphere, and his apparent movement, in 
his annual revolution in the zodiac, cuts his apparent diurnal 
motion, which is parallel to the equator. 

vv. 10-33] CANTO X 77 

begin to gaze with delight on the art of that 
Master who within Himself so loves it that His 
eye never departs from it. See how from that 
point the oblique circle which bears the plan- 
ets ^ branches off, to satisfy the world which 
calls on them ; * and if their road were not bent, 
much virtue in the heavens would be in vain, 
and well-nigh every potency dead here below ; ^ 
and if its departure were more or less distant 
from the straight line, much of the order of the 
world, both below and above, would be defec- 
tive. Now remain, Reader, upon thy bench,^ 
pursuing in thought that which is foretasted if 
thou wouldst be glad far sooner than weary. I 
have set before thee ; henceforth feed thou thy- 
self, for that theme whereof I have been made 
the scribe wrests all my care unto itself. 

The greatest minister of nature, which im- 
prints the world with the worth of the hea- 
vens, and with his light measures the time for 
us, conjoined with that region which is men- 
tioned above, was circling through the spirals in 
which from day to day he earlier presents him- 

3. V. 14. The zodiac, which branches off from the 
equator at the equinoctial point. 

4. V. 15. Which invokes their influence. 

5. V. 1 8. Because on the obliquity of their path depends 
the variety of their influence. 

6. V. 22. As a scholar. 

78 PARADISE [vv. 34-52 

self/ And I was with him ; but of the ascent I 
was not aware, otherwise than is a man, before 
his first thought, aware of its coming. It is 
Beatrice who thus conducts from good to bet- 
ter, so instantaneously that her act does not 
extend through time. 

How lucent in itself must that have been 
which was apparent not by color but by light 
within the sun where I had entered ! Though I 
should call on genius, art, and use, I could not 
tell it so that it could ever be imagined ; but 
one may believe it, and let him long to see it. 
And if our fancies are low for such loftiness, it 
is no marvel, for beyond the sun there was 
never eye could go. Such ^ was here the fourth 
family of the exalted Father, who always sat- 
isfies it, showing how He breathes forth, and 
how He begets.^ And Beatrice began : " Give 

7. V. 33. In that region which has been mentioned 
above, where the equator and the zodiac intersect, the sun 
was pursuing his spiral course, according to the Ptolemaic 
system, in which, after the vernal equinox, he rises every- 
day a httle earlier and a little farther north. So Donne : — 

** Where the Sun rose to-day 
He comes no more, but with a cozening line, 
Steals by that point, and so is serpentine.** 

An Anatomie of the World. 

8. V. 49. So lucent, brighter than the sun. 

9. V. 5 1 . Shovmg himself in the Holy Spirit and in the 

vv. 53-80] CANTO X 79 

thanks, give thanks to the Sun of the Angels, 
who to this visible one has raised thee by His 
grace/' Heart of mortal was never so disposed 
to devotion, and so ready, with its whole will, 
to render itself up to God, as I became at those 
words ; and all my love was so set on Him 
that it eclipsed Beatrice in oblivion. It did not 
displease her ; but she so smiled thereat that 
the splendor of her smiling eyes divided upon 
many things my mind intent on one. 

I saw many living and surpassing effulgences 
make of us a centre, and make of themselves a 
crown ; more sweet in voice than shining in as- 
pect. Thus girt we sometimes see the daugh- 
ter of Latona, when the air is so impregnate 
that it holds the thread which makes her zone.'° 
In the court of Heaven, wherefrom I return, 
are found many jewels so precious and beauti- 
ful that they cannot be brought from the king- 
dom, and of these was the song of those lights. 
Let him who does not wing himself so that he 
may fly up thither, await tidings thence from 
the dumb. 

After those blazing suns, thus singing, had 
circled three times round about us, like stars 
near to the fixed poles, they seemed to me as 
ladies not released from a dance, but who stop 

10. V. 69. When the air is so full of vapor that it forms 
a halo. 

8o PARADISE [vv. 81-99 

silent, listening till they have caught the new 
notes. And within one I heard begin : " Since 
the ray of grace, by which true love is kindled, 
and which then in loving grows multiplied, so 
shines on thee that it conducts thee upward by 
that stair which, without reascending, no one 
descends," he who should deny to thee the wine 
of his flask for thy thirst, would not be more at 
liberty than water which descends not to the 
sea." Thou wishest to know with what plants 
this garland is enflowered, which, round about 
her, gazes with delight upon the beautiful Lady 
who strengthens thee for heaven. I was of the 
lambs of the holy flock which Dominic leads 
along the way '^ where they fatten well if they 
do not stray.'^ This one who is nearest to me 
on the right was my brother and master ; and 
he was Albert of Cologne,'^ and I Thomas of 

11. V. 87. Once received into Paradise no one can de- 
scend from it but to ascend again : so in the second canto of 
Purgatory, vv. 91, 92, Dante says to Casella, *<In order to 
return another time there where I am, I make this journey.** 

12. V. 90. He would be restrained against his nature, 
as water prevented from seeking the level of the sea. 

13. V. 95. That is, he was of the Order of St. Dominic. 

14. V. 96. Where one acquires spiritual good, if he be 
not distracted by the allurement of worldly things. 

15. V. 98. So famed for his learning that he became 
known as Albertus Magnus, and was styled Doctor Univer- 
salis, He was born in 1 193 and died in 1280. 

vv. 100-109] CANTO X 8i 

Aquino.'^ If thus of all the rest thou wouldst 
be informed, come, following my speech, with 
thy sight circling around upon the blessed 
wreath. That next flaming issues from the 
smile of Gratian, who so aided one court and 
the other that it pleases in Paradise.'^ The 
next, who at his side adorns our choir, was that 
Peter who, like the poor woman, offered his 
treasure to Holy Church.'^ The fifth light, 
which is most beautiful among us,'^ breathes 

1 6. V. 99. St. Thomas Aquinas, Doctor Angelicus, 
whose Summa Theologiae is the chief source of Dante's theo- 
logical doctrine, and is still the authorized doctrinal text-book 
of the Roman Church. He was born about 1225 and died 
in 1274. 

17. V. 105. Gratian was an Italian Benedictine monk, 
who lived in the twelfth century, and compiled the famous 
work known as the Decretum Gratianiy composed of texts 
of Scripture, of the Canons of the Church, of Decretals of 
the Popes, and of extracts from the Fathers, designed to 
establish the agreement of the civil and canon law, — a work 
pleasing in Paradise because promoting concord between the 
two authorities. 

18. V. 108. Peter Lombard, a theologian of the twelfth 
century, known as Mngister Senteritiarum, from his compi- 
lation of extracts from the works of the Fathers relating to 
the chief doctrines of the Church, under the ride of Senten- 
tiarum Libri IV. In the proem to his work he says that he 
desired, ** like the poor widow" {Luke xxi. 1-4), ** to 
cast something from his penury into the treasury of the 
Lord.'* His book was for a long rime the favorite manual 
of theology in the Schools. 

19. V. 109. Solomon. 

82 PARADISE [vv. 1 10-123 

from such love that all the world there below 
is greedy to know tidings of it : *° within it is 
the lofty mind wherein wisdom so profound 
was put, that, if the truth be true, to see so 
much no second has arisen." At its side be- 
hold the light of that candle which, below in 
the flesh, saw most inwardly the angelic nature, 
and its ministry." In the next little light smiles 
that advocate of the Christian times, with whose 
discourse Augustine provided himself ^^ Now 
if thou leadest the eye of the mind, following 
my praises, from light to light, thou stayest 
already thirsting for the eighth. Therewithin, 

20. V. 1 1 1 . It was matter of debate among the doctors 
of the Church, whether Solomon was among the blessed or 
the damned. 

21. V. 114. " Lo, I have given thee a wise and an 
understanding heart ; so that there was none like thee be- 
fore thee, neither after thee shall any arise like unto thee.*' 
I Kings iii. 1 2. 

22. V. 117. Dionysius the Areopagite, the disciple of 
St. Paul (^Acts xvii. 34), to whom was ascribed a book of 
great repute, written by an unknown author, probably in the 
fifth or sixth century. On the Celestial Hierarchy. 

23. V. 120. Paulus Orosius, who lived in the fourth 
and fifth centuries, and wrote at the request of St. Augustine, 
his History against the Pagans, to defend Christianity from 
the charge brought against it by the Gentiles of being the 
source of the calamities which had befallen the Roman world. 
His work might be regarded as a supplement to St. Augus- 
tine's De Civitate Dei. 

vv. 124-138] CANTO X 83 

through seeing every good, the holy soul re- 
joices which makes the fallacious world mani- 
fest to him who hearkens to it well.^^ The 
body whence it was chased out lies below in 
Cieldauro/5 and from martyrdom and from 
exile it came to this peace. Beyond, see flam- 
ing the glowing breath of Isidore, of Bede, and 
of Richard who in contemplation was more 
than man.^^ This one from whom thy look 
returns to me is the light of a spirit to whom, 
in his grave thoughts, it seemed that death 
came slow. It is the eternal light of Siger,^^ 
who, reading in the Street of Straw, syllogized 
invidious truths." 

24. V. 126. Boethius, statesman and philosopher, who 
was born about 475, and died in 525 ; his work, De Conso- 
latione Fhilosophiaey was one of the books held in highest 
esteem by Dante. He cites it frequently in the Convito ; 
see especially, ii. 13, and 16. 

25. V. 128. Boethius, who was put to death in Pa via, 
in 525, was buried in the church of S. Pietro in Cielo d' Ore 
— St. Peter's of the Golden Ceiling. 

26. V. 132. Isidore, bishop of Seville, died 636 ; the 
Venerable Bede, died 735 ; Richard, prior of the Monastery 
of St. Victor, at Paris, a mystic of the twelfth century ; all 
eminent theologians. 

27. V. 136. Siger of Brabant, who in the last half of 
the thirteenth century, as doctor in the University of Paris, 
gave instruction in the Rue du Fouarre. The meaning of the 
words veri invidioiiy *Mnvidious truths" or ** truths which 
were hated,'* is uncertain ; but he took an active part in the 

84 PARADISE [vv. 139-148 

Then, as a horologe which calls us at the 
hour when the Bride of God^^ rises to sing 
matins to her Bridegroom that he may love 
her, in which the one part draws and urges the 
other, sounding ting! ting! with such sweet 
note that the well-disposed spirit swells with 
love, so did I see the glorious wheel move, and 
render voice to voice in concord and in sweet- 
ness which cannot be known save there where 
joy is everlasting. 

disputes in the University, and it is stated, on somewhat un- 
certain authority, that he was put to death by the Court of 
Rome, at Orvieto. 

28. V. 140. The Church. 


The Vanity of worldly desires, — St, Thomas Aquinas 
undertakes to solve two doubts perplexing Dante, — He 
narrates the life of St, Francis of Assisi, 

O INSENSATE carc of mortals ! how defective 
are those syllogisms which make thee down- 
ward beat thy wings ! One was going after the 
laws, and one after the aphorisms/ and one fol- 
lowing the priesthood, and one to reign by 
force or by sophisms, and one to rob, and one 
to civic business, one, involved in pleasure of 
the flesh, was wearying himself, and one was 
giving himself to idleness, when I, loosed from 
all these things, with Beatrice, up in Heaven 
was thus gloriously received. 

After each* had returned to that point of 
the circle at which it was at first, it stayed still, 
as a candle in a candlestick. And within that 
light which first had spoken to me I heard, 

1. V. 4. The Aphorisms of Hippocrates, meaning here, 
the study of medicine. 

2. V. 13. Each of the lights which had encircled Bea- 
trice and Dante. 

86 PARADISE [vv. 18-39 

as making itself more clear, it smiling began : 
" Even as I am resplendent with its radiance, 
so, looking into the Eternal Light, I apprehend 
whence is the occasion of thy thoughts. Thou 
art perplexed, and hast the wish that my speech 
be explained in language so open and so full 
that it may be level to thy sense, where I said 
just now : * Where they fatten well,' ^ and there 
where I said : * No second has been born ; ' ^ 
and here is need that one distinguish well. 

" The Providence which governs the world 
with that counsel, in which every created vision 
is vanquished ere it reach its depth, in order 
that the Bride ^ of Him, who with loud cries ^ 
espoused her with His blessed blood, might go 
toward her beloved, secure in herself and also 
more faithful to Him, ordained two princes in 
her favor, who on this side and that should be 
to her for guides. The one was all seraphic 
in ardor,^ the other, through wisdom, was on 
earth a splendor of cherubic light.^ I will speak 

3. V. 25. Canto X. 96. 

4. V. 26. Canto X. 114. The phrase is slightly changed. 

5. V. 32. The Church. 

6. V. 32. '* And Jesus [on the cross] cried with a loud 
voice.'* Matthew xxvii. 46 and 50. 

7. V. 37. St. Francis of Assisi. The seraphs burn with 
ardent love, the cherubs shine with the splendor of the radi- 
ance of knowledge of God. 

8. V. 39. St. Dominic. 

vv. 40-56] CANTO XI 87 

of one, because in praising one, whichever be 
taken, both are spoken of, for to one end were 
their works. 

" Between the Tupino and the water ^ which 
descends from the hill chosen by the blessed 
Ubald, hangs the fertile slope of a high moun- 
tain, wherefrom Perugia at Porta Sole '° feels cold 
and heat, while behind it Nocera and Gualdo 
weep because of their heavy yoke." From 
this slope, where it most breaks its steepness, 
a Sun rose upon the world, as this one some- 
times does from the Ganges. Wherefore let 
him who talks of this place not say Ascesi," 
which were to speak short, but Orient,'^ if he 
would speak properly. He was not yet very 
far from his rising when he began to make the 

9. V. 43. The Chiassi, which flows from the hill near 
Gubbio chosen for his hermitage by St. Ubald. 

10. V. 47. The gate of Perugia, which fronts Monte 
Subasio, on which Assisi lies, some fifteen miles to the south. 
The mountain makes it hot in summer, and cold in winter. 

11. V. 48. Little towns, southeast of Assisi, held in sub- 
jection by Perugia. 

12. V. 53. So the name of Assisi was sometimes spelled, 
and here with a play on as c est (as if from ascendere) ** I 

13. V. 54. As the sun at the vernal equinox, the sacred 
season of the Creation and the Incarnation, rises in the due 
east or orient, represented in the geographical system of the 
time by the Ganges, so the place where this new Sun of 
righteousness arose should be called Orient or dayspring. 

88 PARADISE [w. 57-76 

earth feel some comfort from his great virtue ; 
for, while still a youth, he ran into strife with 
his father '* for sake of a lady such as to whom, 
as unto death, no one unlocks the gate of plea- 
sure ; and before his spiritual court et coram 
patre^^ he was united to her; and thereafter 
from day to day he loved her more ardently. 
She, deprived of her first husband,'^ for eleven 
hundred years and more, despised and obscure, 
even till him had remained unwooed ; '^ nor 
had it availed '^ to hear, that he, who caused 
fear to all the world, found her undisturbed 
with Amyclas at the sound of his voice ; '^ nor 
had it availed to have been constant and un- 
daunted, so that, where Mary remained below, 
she mounted on the cross with Christ. 

But that I may not proceed too obscurely, 
henceforth in my diffuse speech take Francis 
and Poverty for these lovers. Their concord 
and their glad semblances made love, and won- 

14. V. 59. Devoting himself to Poverty against his 
father's will. 

15. V. 62. Before the Bishop of Assisi, and "in pre- 
sence of his father,*' he renounced his v^orldly possessions. 

16. V. 64. Christ. 

17. V. 66. St. Francis was born in 1182. 

18. V. 67. To procure suitors for her. 

19. V. 69. When Caesar knocked at the door of Amy- 
clas his voice caused no alarm, because Poverty made the 
fisherman secure. Lucan, Pharsalia, v. 5^5 ff» 

V. 77-94] CANTO XI ' 89 

der, and sweet regard ^° to be the cause of holy- 
thoughts ; so that the venerable Bernard first 
bared his feet/' and ran following such great 
peace, and, running, it seemed to him that he 
was slow. O unknown riches ! O fertile good ! 
Egidius bares his feet and Sylvester bares his 
feet," following the bridegroom ; so pleasing is 
the bride. Then that father and that master 
goes on his way with his lady, and with that 
family which the humble cord was now gird- 
ing.^3 Nor did baseness of heart weigh down 
his brow for being the son of Pietro Bernar- 
done,^^ nor for appearing marvellously despised ; 
but royally he opened his hard intention to 
Innocent, and from him received the first 
seal for his Order.*^ After the poor folk had 

20. V. ']'], In the hearts of those who beheld them. 

21. V. 80. The followers of Francis imitated him in 
going barefoot. Bernard, a wealthy citizen of Assisi, was his 
first disciple. He distributed his goods among the poor, and 
embracing the rule of poverty gave his life to deeds of mercy. 
After the death of Francis he was chosen head of the Order. 

22. V. 83. Egidius, the blessed Giles of Assisi, and 
Sylvester were not only two of the first, but also two of the 
most devoted followers of their master. 

23. V. 87. The cord for their girdle, instead of the 
leathern belt commonly worn by the monastic orders ; 
whence the Franciscans were called Cordeliers. 

24. V. 89. For being the son of a rich father, and 
being scoffed at for his own abject indigence. 

^5* ^' 93' I^ °^ about I 210 Pope Innocent III. ap- 
proved the Rule of St. Francis. 

90 PARADISE [95-111 

increased behind him, whose marvellous life 
would be better sung in the glory of the hea- 
vens, the holy purpose of this archimandrite*^ 
was adorned with a second crown by the Eter- 
nal Spirit, through Honorius.*^ And after that, 
through thirst for martyrdom, he had preached 
Christ and the othejrs who followed him, in the 
proud presence of the Sultan,^^ and because he 
found the people too unripe for conversion, 
and in order not to stay in vain, had returned 
to the fruit of the Italian herbage,''^ on the harsh 
rock:,2° between the Tiber and the Arno, he re- 
ceived from Christ the last seal,^' which his 
limbs bore for two years. When it pleased 
Him, who had allotted him to such great good, 
to draw him up to the reward which he had 
gained in making himself lowly ,^* he com- 

26. V. 99. ''The head of the fold : '* a term of the 
Greek Church, designating the head of one or more monas- 

27. V. 98. In 1223, Honorius III. confirmed the sanc- 
tion of the Order. 

28. V. loi. Francis, with some of his followers, accom- 
panied the crusaders of the fifth crusade to Egypt in 1 2 1 9, 
and is said to have been sent for by the Sultan of the land 
and to have preached before him. 

29. V. 105. To the harvest of good grain in Italy. 

30. V. 106. Mount Alvernia, in the Casentino, the 
upper valley of the Arno. 

31. v. 107. The Stigmata. 

32. V. 1 1 1. The word in the original which I translate 

vv. 112-134] CANTO XI 91 

mended his most dear lady to his brethren as 
to rightful heirs, and commanded them to love 
her faithfully ; and from her bosom his illus- 
trious soul willed to depart, returning to its 
realm, and for his body he willed no other 

" Think now what he was,^^ who was a wor- 
thy colleague to keep the bark of Peter on 
the deep sea to its right aim ! And this was 
our Patriarch : ^s wherefore thou canst see that 
whoever follows him as he commands loads 
good merchandise. But his flock has become 
so greedy of strange food ^^ that it cannot but 
be scattered over diverse meadows ; and the 
farther his sheep, remote and vagabond, go from 
him, the more empty of milk do they return 
to the fold. Some of them indeed there are 
who fear the harm, and keep close to the shep- 
herd ; but they are so few that little cloth fur- 
nishes their cowls. Now if my words are not 
faint, if thy hearing has been attentive, if thou 

** lowly " is pusilloy which in its Latin form pusillus is used 
in the Vulgate in passages where in the English version we 
find *' little one " or *Mittle." See Matthew xviii. 6, 10, 
II ; Mark ix. 41 ; Luke xii. 32, xvii. 2. 

33. V. 117. St. Francis died in 1226. 

34. V. 118. How holy he must have been. 

35. V. 121. St. Dominic. 

36. V. 124. The food of riches and ecclesiastical digni- 
ties, strange to the true flock. 

92 PARADISE [vv. 135-139 

recallest to mind that which I have said, thy 
wish will be content in part, because thou wilt 
see the plant wherefrom they are hewn,^^ ^nd 
thou wilt see how the wearer of the thong rea- 
sons — ' Where they fatten well if they do not 
stray/ " 

37. V. 137. The plant of which the words are splinters 
or chips ; in other terms, " thou wilt understand the whole 
ground of my assertion, and thou wilt see what St. Thomas 
Aquinas, wearer of the leathern thong of the Dominican 
Order, means, when he says that the flock of Dominic fatten, 
if they stray not from the road on which he leads them." 


Second circle of the spirits of wise religious men^ doc- 
tors of the Church and teachers, — St, Bonaventura nar- 
rates the life of St. Dominic^ and tells the names of those 
who form the circle with him. 

Soon as the blessed flame took to speaking 
its last word the holy mill-stone ' began to re- 
volve, and had not wholly turned in its gyra- 
tion before another enclosed it with a circle, 
and matched motion with motion, song with 
song ; song which in those sweet pipes as much 
surpasses our Muses, our Sirens, as a primal 
splendor that which it reflected.^ As two bows 
parallel and like in colors are turned across a 
thin cloud, when Juno gives the order to her 
handmaid,^ the one without born of the one 
within (in manner of the speech of that wander- 
ing one^ whom love consumed, as the sun does 

1. V. 3. The circle of spirits surrounding Beatrice and 

2. V. 9. As an original ray is brighter than one re- 

3. V. 12. Iris. 

4. V. 14. The nymph Echo. 

94 PARADISE [vv. 16-38 

vapors), and make the people here ^ to be pre- 
sageful, by reason of the covenant which God 
established with Noah concerning the world, 
that it shall nevermore be flooded ; so the two 
garlands of those sempiternal roses were turn- 
ing around us, and so did the outer correspond 
to the inner. After the dance and the exalted 
great festivity, alike of the singing and of the 
flaming, light with light joyous and bland, had 
become quiet together at one instant and with 
one will, even as the eyes which must needs close 
and lift themselves together at the pleasure that 
moves them, from the heart of one of the new 
lights there came a voice, which made me seem 
as the needle to the star in turning me to its 
whereabout ; and it began : ^ " The love which 
makes me beautiful draws me to discourse of 
the other leader, by whom ^ so well it has been 
spoken here of mine. It is fit that where one 
is the other be led in, so that as they waged 
war united, so together may their glory shine. 

" The army of Christ, which it cost so dear 
to arm afresh,^ was moving behind the stand- 

5. V. 16. On earth. 

6. V. 31. It is St. Bonaventura, the biographer of St. 
Francis, who speaks. He became General of the Order in 
1256, and died in 1276. 

7. V. 33. By whom, through one of his brethren, St. 
Thomas Aquinas. 

8. V. 38. The elect, who had lost grace through Adam's 

vv. 39-6o] CANTO XII 95 

ard,^ slow, mistrustful, and scanty, when the 
Emperor who forever reigns made provision 
for his soldiery that were in peril, of His grace 
only, not because it was worthy, and, as has 
been said, succored His Bride with two cham- 
pions, by whose deeds, by whose words, the 
people gone astray were brought back. 

" In that region where the sweet Zephyr rises 
to open the new leaves wherewith Europe is 
seen to reclothe herself, not very far from the 
beating of the waves behind which, over their 
long course, the sun sometimes hides himself 
from every man,'° sits the fortunate Callaroga, 
under the protection of the great shield on 
which the Lion is subject and subjugates." 
Therein was born the amorous lover of the 
Christian faith, the holy athlete, benignant to 
his own, and harsh to his enemies ; " and so 
soon as it was created, his mind was so replete 
with living virtue, that in his mother it made 

sin, were armed afresh by the costly sacrifice of the Son of 

9. V. 38. The Cross. 

10. V. 51. The sun sinking in the West rises over the 
Southern hemisphere, ** the world without people." //<?//, 
xxvi. 117. 

11. V. 54. Callaroga, now Calahorra, a city in Old 
Castile. On the shield of Castile two Hons and two castles 
are quartered, one lion below and one above. 

12. V. 57. St. Dominic, born in 11 70. 

96 PARADISE [vv. 61-71 

her a prophetess. '^ After the espousals be- 
tween him and the Faith '^ were completed at 
the sacred font, where they dowered each other 
with mutual salvation, the lady who gave the 
assent for him saw in a dream the marvellous 
fruit which should issue from him and from, 
his heirs ; '^ and in order that he might be con- 
strued as he was/^ a spirit went forth from 
here '^ to name him with the possessive of Him 
whose he wholly was. Dominic '^ was he called ; 
and I speak of him as of the husbandman 

13. V. 60. His mother dreamed that she gave birth to a 
dog, black and white in color, with a lighted torch in its 
mouth, which set the world on fire ; symbols of the black and 
white robe of the Order, and of the flaming zeal of its breth- 
ren. Hence arose a play of words on their name, Domini- 
caniy as if Domini canes, " the dogs of the Lord.** 

14. V. 62. As Poverty became the bride of Francis, so 
the Faith becomes the bride of Dominic. 

15. V. 66. The godmother of Dominic saw in dream a 
star on the forehead and another on the back of the head of 
the child, signifying the light that should stream from him 
over East and West. 

16. V. 67. Literally, "in order that he might be what 
he was in construing ; * * costrutto is a forced rhyme, and 
makes the interpretation of the verse dijfficult, but the mean- 
ing is, *' in order that when he was spoken of (in construing) 
his name might truly express his nature.'* 

17. V. 68. From heaven. 

18. V. 69. D^;57/;?/Vj^j, the possessive of Z)ff;z?//?z^/, ''Be- 
longing to the Lord." 

vv. 72-88] CANTO XII 97 

whom Christ elected to His garden to assist 
Him. Truly he seemed the messenger and 
familiar of Christ ; for the first love that was 
manifest in him was for the first counsel which 
Christ gave.'^ Oftentimes was he found by his 
nurse upon the ground silent and awake, as 
though he would say : ^ I am come for this/ 
O father of him truly Felix ! O mother of 
him truly Joanna, if this, being interpreted, 
means as is said ! *° 

"Not for the world,*' for which men now 
toil, following him of Ostia and Thaddeus," but 
for love of the true manna, he became in short 
time a great teacher, such that he set himself 
to go about the vineyard, which quickly grows 
white if the vinedresser be at fault ; and of the 
Seat,^3 which was formerly more benign unto the 

19. V. 75. **Sell that thou hast and give to the poor.** 
Matthew xix. 21. 

20. V. 81. Felix, signifying *' happy,** and Joanna, 
said to mean, *'the grace of the Lord.*' 

21. V. 82. The goods of this world. 

22. V. 83. Henry of Susa, cardinal of Osda (d. 
1 271) who wrote a much studied commentary on the 
Decretals, and Taddeo d' Alderotto of Bologna, who, says 
Giovanni Villani, recording his death in 1303, ** was the 
greatest physician in Christendom." The thought is the 
same as that at the beginning of Canto xi., where Dante 
speaks of **one following the laws, and one the aphorisms." 

23. V. 88. The Papal throne. 

98 PARADISE [vv. 89-106 

righteous poor (not by reason of itself but by- 
reason of him who sits there and is degener- 
ate ''^), he asked not to dispense or two or three 
for six/5 not the fortune of the first vacancy, 
non decimas, quae sunt pauperum Dei,^^ but leave 
to fight against the errant world for that seed ^^ 
of which four and twenty plants surround thee.^^ 
Then with doctrine and with will, together with 
the apostolic office,''^ he went forth like a torrent 
which a lofty vein presses out, and on the heret- 
ical stocks his onset smote with most vigor there 
where the resistance was the greatest. From 
him proceeded thereafter divers rills whereby 
the catholic garden is watered, so that its bushes 
are more living. 

" If such was the one wheel of the chariot on 

24. V. 90 The meaning is, that the change in the tem- 
per of the See of Rome is due not to the fault of the Papal 
dignity itself, but to that of the degenerate Pope. 

25. V. 9 1 . Not for license to compound for unjust ac- 
quisitions by devoting a part of them to pious uses, to take 
six and give but two or three. 

26. V. 93. ** Not the tithes which belong to God's 

27. V. 95. The true faith; "the seed is the word of 
God." Luke viii. 11. 

28. V. 96. The twenty-four blessed spirits of the two 

29. V. 98. The authority conferred on him by Inno- 
cent III. 

vv. 107-125] CANTO XII 99 

which the Holy Church defended herself and 
vanquished in the field her civil strife,^" surely 
the excellence of the other should be very plain 
to thee, concerning whom Thomas before my 
coming was so courteous. But the track which 
the highest part of its circumference made is 
derelict ; ^^ so that there is mould where the 
crust was.^^ His household, which set out 
aright with their feet upon his footprints, are 
so turned round that they set the forward foot 
on that behind ; ^^ and soon shall there be sight 
of the harvest of the ill culture, when the tare 
will complain that the bin is taken from it.^* 
Nevertheless I say, he who should search our 
volume leaf by leaf ^^ might still find a page 
where he would read : ^ I am that which I am 
wont.' But it will not be from Casale nor 
from Acquasparta,^^ whence come such to the 

30. V. 108. The heresies within her own borders. 

31. V. 1 13. The track made by St. Francis is deserted. 

32. V. 114. The change of metaphor is sudden ; good 
wine makes a crust, bad wine makes mould in the cask. 

33. V. 117. They go in an opposite direction from that 
followed by the saint. 

34. V. I 20. That it is thrown out from the bin in the 
granary. See Matthew xiii. 30. 

35. V. 122. The volume is the Franciscan Order, the 
leaves are its members. 

36. V. 124. Frate Ubertino of Casale, the leader of a 
party of zealots among the Franciscans, enforced the ** writ- 

loo PARADISE [vv. 126-136 

writing that one evades it, and the other con- 
tracts it. 

" I am the life of Bonaventura of Bagnoregio, 
who in great offices always set the sinister ^^ care 
behind. Illuminato and Augustin are here, 
who were among the first barefoot poor that 
in the cord made themselves friends to God. 
Hugh of St. Victor 3^ is here with them, and 
Peter Mangiadore, and Peter of Spain,^^ who 
down below shines in twelve books; Nathan 
the prophet, and the Metropolitan Chryso- 

ing," that is, the written Rule of the Order, with extessive 
strictness ; Matteo of Acquasparta, general of the Francis- 
cans in 1257, relaxed it. 

37. V. 129. The sinister, that is, the left hand care ; 
care for temporal things ; so in Proverbs iii. 16 ; ''in sinistra 
illius divitiae et gloria," «* in her left hand riches and honor." 

38. V. 133. Hugh ( 1 097-1 141), a noted theologian 
of the mystic school, of the famou? abbey of St. Victor at 

39. V. 134. Peter Mangiador, or Comestor, *'the 
Eater," so called as being a devourer of books. He himself 
wrote a book famous in its time, the Hist or ia Scholastic a. 
He was canon of St. Victor and chancellor of the University 
of Paris, and died toward the end of the twelfth century. 

Peter of Spain was born at Lisbon. His compendium 
of Logic, Summae logicales, in twelve books, was long held 
in high repute. He was made Cardinal Bishop of Tusculum in 
1273, and was chosen Pope in 1276, taking the name of 
John XXI. He was killed in May, i 277, by the fall of the 
ceiling of the chamber in which he was sleeping, in the Papal 
palace at Viterbo. He is the only contemporary Pope whom 
Dante meets in Paradise. 

vv. 137-145] CANTO XII loi 

stom/° and Anselm/' and that Donatus ^ who 
deigned to set his hand to the first art ; Raban ^^ 
is here, and at my side shines the Calabrian 
abbot Joachim/^ endowed with prophetic spirit. 
" The flaming courtesy of Brother Thomas, 
and his well advised discourse, moved me to 
envy ^^ so great a paladin ; and with me moved 
this company." 

40. V. 137. The Greek golden-mouth father of the 
Church, patriarch of Constantinople. 

41. V. 137. Born about 1033 at Aosta in Piedmont, 
consecrated Archbishop of Canterbury in 1093, died 1109 ; 
*'magnus et subtilis doctor in theologia.'* 

42. V. 137. The compiler of the treatise on Grammar 
(the first of the seven arts of the Trivium and the Quadri- 
vium) which was in use throughout the Middle Ages. 

43. V. 139. Rabanus Maurus, Archbishop of Mainz, 
in the ninth century ; a great scholar and writer, ** cui 
similem suo tempore non habuit Ecclesia.*' 

44. V. 140. Joachim, Abbot of Flora, in Calabria. He 
died in 1202. He wrote apocalyptic and prophetic treatises, 
in which he expounded in mysdc terms the ** Everlasting 
Gospel '* of Revelation xiv. 6. His doctrine was that the 
dispensation of the Father and of the Son, contained in the 
Old and the New Testament, was to be speedily followed 
by that of the Holy Spirit, the consummation of the Divine 
reveladon for the redempdon of the world. During the 
thirteenth century this doctrine had a widespread influence. 

45. V. 142. The meaning is, that the courtesy of 
Brother Thomas, a Dominican, in praising St. Francis, the 
founder of a rival Order, and the nature of his discourse moved 
me, a Franciscan, to a noble envy of his master St. Dominic, 
and hence to celebrate him. 


St, Thomas Aquinas speaks again^ and explains the re- 
lation of the wisdom of Solomon to that of Adam and of 
Christy and declares the vanity of human judgment. 

Let him imagine/ who desires to understand 
welJ that which I now saw (and let him retain 
the image like a firm rock, while I am speak- 
ing), fifteen stars which in different regions viv- 
ify the heaven with brightness so great that it 
overcomes every thickness of the air ; let him 
imagine that Wain "" for which the bosom of our 
heaven suffices both night and day, so that with 
the turning of its pole it does not disappear ; let 
him imagine the mouth of that horn^ which 

1 . V. I . To form an idea of the brightness and the mo- 
tion of the two circles of spirits, let the reader, says the poet, 
imagine fifteen of the brightest separate stars, joined with the 
seven stars of the Great Bear, and with the two brightest of 
the Lesser Bear, to form two constellations like Ariadne's 
Crown, and to revolve one within the other, one following 
the movement of the other. 

2. V. 7. Charles's Wain, the Great Bear, which never 

3. v. 10. The Lesser Bear may be imagined as having 
the shape of a horn, of which the small end is near the pole 
of the heavens around which the Primum Mobile revolves. 

vv. 11-30] CANTO XIII 103 

begins at the point of the axle on which the 
primal wheel goes round, — to have made of 
themselves two signs in the heavens, like that 
which the daughter of Minos made, when she 
felt the frost of death,^ and one to have its rays 
within the other, and both to revolve in such 
manner that one should go first and the other 
after ; and he will have as it were the shadow 
of the true constellation, and of the double 
dance, which was circling round the point where 
I was ; since it is as much beyond our wont 
as the motion of the heaven which outspeeds 
all the rest is swifter than the movement of the 
Chiana.5 There was sung not Bacchus, not 
Paean, but three Persons in the divine nature, 
and It and the human in one Person. The 
singing and the revolving completed each its 
measure, and those holy lights gave heed to us, 
making themselves happy from care to care.^ 

4. V. 15. Dionysus bore Ariadne, deserted by Theseus, 
to heaven, and changed her crown into a constellation. 

If the reader imagine these twenty-four most brilliant stars 
to form two circular constellations, Hke Ariadne's crown, 
moving with the revolution of the Heavens, he will have a 
faint image of the two bright garlands of twelve saints each 
which were revolving around Dante and Beatrice. 

5. V. 23. The Chiana was one of the most sluggish of 
the streams of Tuscany. 

6. V. 30. Rejoicing in the change from dance and song 
to tranquillity, for the sake of giving satisfaction to Dante. 

104 PARADISE [vv. 31-48 

Then the light ^ within which the marvellous 
life of the poor man of God had been narrated 
to me broke the silence among those concor- 
dant divinities,^ and said : " Since one straw is 
threshed, since its seed is now garnered, sweet 
love invites me to beat out the other.^ Thou 
believest that into the breast, wherefrom the rib 
was drawn to form the beautiful cheek of her 
whose palate costs dear to all the world, and into 
that which, pierced by the lance, both after and 
before made such satisfaction that it overcomes 
the balance of all sin,'° whatever of light it is 
allowed to human nature to have was all infused 
by that Power which made one and the other ; 
and therefore thou wonderest at that which I 
said above, when I told that the good which is 
inclosed in the fifth light had no second. Now 

7. V. 32. The light of St. Thomas Aquinas. 

8. V. 31. Filled with the Divine Grace, " they are, as 
it were, gods.'* See Convito, iv. 20, 26. 

9. V. 36. The saint has already explained the meaning 
of his saying, *< Where they fatten well if they do not stray '* 
(Canto X. 96 and xi. 139), and now proceeds to explain 
how it could properly be said of Solomon that *' to see so 
much no second has arisen" (Canto x. 114), inasmuch as 
both Adam and Christ were endowed with fulness of know- 
ledge, so far as was possible for human nature. 

10. V. 42. Balanced against the sins of mankind, the 
life and the death of the Saviour made such satisfaction as to 
outweigh them all. 

vv. 49-67] CANTO XIII 105 

open thine eyes to that which I answer to thee, 
and thou wilt see thy belief and my speech be- 
come in the truth as the centre in a circle. 

" That which dies not and that which can 
die are naught but the splendor of that idea 
which in His love our Sire brings to birth ; " for 
that living Light, which so streams from its 
Lucent Source that It is not disunited from It, 
nor from the Love which with them is intrined, 
doth of Its own goodness collect Its rays, as it 
were mirrored, in nine subsistences. Itself eter- 
nally remaining one. Thence It descends to 
the ultimate potentialities, downward from act 
to act becoming such, that finally It makes 
naught save brief contingencies : and these con- 
tingencies I understand to be the generated 
things which the moving heavens produce with 
seed and without it." The wax of these, and 

11. V. 54. The Creadon of things eternal and of things 
temporal alike is the resplendent manifestadon of the idea which 
the triune God, in His love, generates. The living light in 
the Son, emanadng from its lucent source in the Father, in 
union with the love of the Holy Spirit, the three remaining 
always one, pours out its radiance through the nine orders of 
the Angelic Hierarchy, who distribute it by means of the 
Heavens of which they are the Intelligences. 

12. V. 66. Through the various movements and con- 
juncdons of the Heavens, the creative light descends to the 
lowest elements, producing all the varieties of contingent 

io6 PARADISE [vv. 68-82 

that which moulds it, are not of one mode, and 
therefore under the signet of the idea It more or 
less shines through ; '^ whence it comes to pass 
that one same plant in respect to species bears 
better or worse fruit, and that ye are born with 
diverse dispositions. If the wax were exactly- 
worked,''* and the heavens were supreme in 
their power, the whole light of the seal would 
be apparent. But nature always gives it defec- 
tive,'^ working like the artist who has the prac- 
tice of his art and a hand that trembles. Yet 
if the fervent Love disposes and imprints the 
clear Vision of the primal Power, complete 
perfection is acquired there. '^ Thus of old 
the earth was made worthy of the complete 

13. V. 69. The material of contingent or temporal 
things, and the influences of the Heavens which shape them, 
are of various sort, so that under the signet or impress of the 
idea, that is, in the specific shape which they receive accord- 
ing to the idea of God, the living Light shines through them 
more or less, and is apparent in them in different degree. 

14. V. 73. If the material were always fit to receive 
the impression. 

15. y. jG. Nature never affords the material perfect and 
capable of giving an exact impression of the idea. 

16. V. 8 1 . If, however, the Creator acts directly, — the 
fervent Love of the Holy Spirit imprinting the clear Vision 
of the Son which emanates from the primal Power of the 
Father, — there can be no imperfection in the created thing ; 
it answers to the Divine idea, that is, to " the clear Vision " 
in the mind of God. 

vv. 83-99] CANTO XIII 107 

perfection of the living being ; '^ thus was the 
Virgin made impregnate ; '^ so that I com- 
mend thy opinion that human nature never 
was, nor will be, what it was in those two per- 

" Now, if I should not proceed farther, 
' How then was that one without a peer ? ' would 
thy words begin. But, in order that that which 
is not apparent may clearly appear, consider 
who he was, and the cause which moved him to 
make request, when it was said to him : ' Ask.' '^ 
I have not so spoken that thou canst not clearly 
see that he was a king, who asked for wisdom, 
in order that he might be a worthy king ; not 
to know the number of the motors here on 
high,^° or if necesse with a contingent ever made 

17. V. 83. Thus, by the immediate action of the Cre- 
ator, the earth of which Adam was formed was made the 
perfect material for the complete perfection of the creature 
with a living soul. 

18. V. 84. In like manner, by the direct act of the 

19. V. 93. ** In Gibeon the Lord appeared to Solomon 
in a dream by night : and God said. Ask what I shall give 
thee. And Solomon said, . . . Thou hast made thy servant 
king . . . and I am but a little child. . . . Give therefore thy 
servant an understanding heart to judge thy people, that I 
may discern between good and bad." i Kin^s iii. 5-9. 

20. V. 98. The number of the Angelic Intelligences 
who move the Heavens. 

io8 PARADISE [vv. 100-114 

necesse ; ^' non si est dare primum motum esse^"^ 
or if in the semicircle a triangle can be made 
so that it should not have one right angle/^ 
Wherefore if thou notest what I said and also 
this, a kingly prudence is that peerless seeing, 
on which the arrow of my intention strikes/* 
And if thou directest clear eyes to the ' has 
arisen,' thou wilt see it has respect only to kings, 
who are many, and the good are rare. With 
this distinction ^^ take thou my saying, and thus 
it can stand with that which thou believest of 
the first father, and of our Beloved one/^ And 
let this ever be as lead to thy feet, to make 
thee move slowly as a weary man, both to the 
yea and to the nay which thou seest not ; for he 

21. V. 99. If from two premises, one necessary and one 
contingent, a necessary conclusion is to be deduced. 

22. V. 100. «<Ifa prime motion is to be granted," 
that is, a motion not the eiFect of another. 

23. V. 102. He did not ask through idle curiosity to 
know the number of the Angels ; nor for the solution of a 
logical puzzle; nor for that of a question in metaphysics, or 
of a problem in geometry. 

24. V. 104. " If thou understandest this comment on 
my former words, *' to see so much no second has arisen," 
my meaning will be clear that his vision was unmatched in 
respect to the wisdom which it behoves a king to possess. 

25. V. 109. Thus distinguishing, it is apparent that Solo- 
mon is not brought into comparison, in respect to perfection 
of wisdom, with Adam or with Christ. 

26. V. III. The Lord Jesus. 

vv. 115-136] CANTO XIII 109 

is very low down among the fools who affirms or 
denies without distinction, alike in the one and 
in the other case : because it happens, that often- 
times the hasty opinion bends in false direc- 
tion, and then self love binds the intelligence.''^ 
Far more than in vain does he leave the bank, 
since he returns not such as he sets out, who 
fishes for the truth, and has not the art ; ^^ and 
of this Parmenides, Melissus, Bryson,""^ are 
manifest proofs to the world, and many others 
who went on and knew not whither. Thus did 
Sabellius, and Arius,^^ and those fools who were 
as swords unto the Scriptures in making their 
straight faces crooked. Let not the folk be 
yet too confident in judgment, like him who 
reckons up the ears in the field ere they are 
ripe ; for I have seen the briar first show itself 
stiff and rugged all winter long, then bear the 
rose upon its top ; and once I saw a bark run 

27. V. 120. The natural predilection for one's own 
opinion prevents the unprejudiced action of the intelligence. 

28. V. 123. He who seeks the truth without regard to 
the method and means of obtaining it, ends his search in- 
volved in greater error than that in which he was at first ; as 
the fisherman who goes to fish without the required means 
returns empty-handed and exhausted. 

29. V. 125. Heathen philosophers who went astray in 
seeking for the truth. 

30. V. 127. Sabellius denied the Trinity, Arius denied 
the Consubstandality of the Father and the Son. 

no PARADISE [vv. 137-142 

straight and swift over the sea through all her 
course, and perish at last at entrance of the 
harbor. Let not dame Bertha or master Mar- 
tin, seeing one rob, and another make offering, 
believe to see them within the Divine coun- 
sel : 3' for the one may rise and the other may- 

31. V. 141. Let not any wiseacre fancy to understand 
the judgments of God, hidden in the mystery of predestina- 


At the prayer of Beatrice^ Solomon tells of the glorified 
bodies of the blessed after the Last Judgment, — Ascent to 
the Heaven of Mars. — Souls of the Soldiery of Christ in 
the form of a Cross with the figure of Christ thereon, — 
Hymn of the Spirits, 

From the centre to the rim, and so from the 
rim to the centre, the water in a round vessel 
moves, according as it is struck from without or 
within. This which I say fell suddenly into my 
mind as the glorious life of Thomas became 
silent, because of the similitude which was born 
of his speech and that of Beatrice, whom after 
him it pleased thus to begin : ' " This man has 
need, and he tells it not to you, neither with 
his voice nor as yet in thought, of going to the 
root of another truth. Tell him if the light 

I. V. 9. The ** glorious life," that is, the glorified spirit 
of St. Thomas, had spoken from his place in the ring of 
saints which formed a circle around Beatrice and Dante ; 
Beatrice begins now to speak from the centre where she stood ; 
and as the voice of the Saint had moved from the circum- 
ference to the centre, so hers proceeds from the centre to the 

112 PARADISE [vv. 13-36 

wherewith your substance blossoms will remain 
with you eternally even as it is now ; and if it 
remain, tell how, after ye shall be again made 
visible/ it can be that it will not hurt your 

As, when urged and drawn on by increase of 
delight, those who are dancing in a ring all at 
once lift their voice and gladden their mo- 
tions, so, at that ready and devout petition, 
the holy circles showed new joy in their turning 
and in their marvellous melody. Whoso 
laments because we die here to live there on 
high, has rot seen here the refreshment of the 
eternal rain.^ 

That One and Two and Three which ever 
lives, and ever reigns in Three and Two and 
One, uncircum scribed, and circumscribing all 
things, was thrice sung by each of those spirits 
with such a melody that for every merit it would 
be adequate reward. And I heard in the 
divinest light of the smaller circle a modest 
voice,^ perhaps such as was that of the Angel 

2. V. 18. The souls of the blessed are hidden in the 
light which emanates from them ; after the resurrection of the 
body they will become visible, but how will the eyes endure 
such brightness as will then be that of the saints ? 

3. V. 27. He who on earth laments having to die has 
never duly taken account of the joy of the perpetual effluence 
of the Grace of God upon the soul in Heaven. 

4. V. 35. Probably that of Solomon, who in the tenth 

vv. 37-61] CANTO XIV 113 

to Mary, make answer : " As long as the festi- 
val of Paradise shall be, so long will our love 
radiate around us such a garment. Its bright- 
ness will follow our ardor, the ardor our vision, 
and that is great in proportion as it receives of 
grace above its own worth.^ When the flesh, 
glorious and sanctified, shall be clothed on us 
again, our persons will be more acceptable 
through being all complete ; wherefore whatever 
of gratuitous light the Supreme Good gives us 
will be increased, — light which enables us to 
see Him ; so that our vision must needs in- 
crease, our ardor increase which by that is kin- 
dled, our radiance increase which comes from this. 
But even as a coal which gives forth flame, and 
by a vivid glow surpasses it, so that its own 
aspect is defended,^ thus this efflilgence, which 
already encircles us, will be vanquished in ap- 
pearance by the flesh which all this while the 
earth covers ; nor will so great a light have 
power to fatigue us, for the organs of the body 
will be strong for everything which can delight 
us." So sudden and ready both one and the 

Canto, V. 109, is said to be ** the light which is the most 
beautiful among us.'* 

5. V. 42. The brightness of the garment of light pro- 
ceeds from and is proportioned to the fervency of love, and 
that to the vision of God. 

6. V. 54. The coal is seen glowing through the flame. 

114 PARADISE [vv. 62-84 

other choir seemed to me in saying " Amen," 
that truly they showed desire for their dead 
bodies, perhaps not only for themselves, but 
also for their mothers, for their fathers, and for 
the others who were deai- before they became 
sempiternal flames. 

And lo ! round about, of a uniform bright- 
ness, arose a lustre, beyond that which was 
there, like an horizon which is growing bright. 
And as at rise of early evening new appearances 
begin in the heavens, so that the sight seems 
and seems not true, it seemed to me that there 
I began to see new subsistences, and a circle 
forming outside the other two circumferences.^ 
O true sparkling of the Holy Spirit ! how sud- 
den and glowing it became to my eyes, which, 
vanquished, endured it not ! But Beatrice 
showed herself to me so beautiful and smiling 
that it must be left among those sights which 
followed not my memory. 

Therefrom my eyes regained power to raise 
themselves again, and I saw myself, alone with 
my Lady, translated to more exalted salvation.^ 

7. V. 29. This new circle, vast in circumference, like 
the horizon, is composed of the multitude of the spirits of the 
wise in the things of the Spirit, who now display themselves, 
shining in this sphere as the brightness of the firmament. 

8. V. 84. To a higher grade of blessedness, that of the 
Fifth Heaven, the sphere of Mars. 

vv. 85-106] CANTO XIV 115 

That I was more uplifted I perceived clearly by 
the fiery smile of the star, which seemed to me 
ruddier than its wont. With all my heart and 
with that speech which is one in all men,^ I 
made to God a holocaust such as was befitting 
to the new grace ; and the ardor of the sacrifice 
was not yet exhausted in my breast before I 
knew that offering had been accepted and pro- 
pitious ; for with such a glow and such a ruddi- 
ness splendors appeared to me within two rays, 
that I said : " O Helios/° who dost so adorn 
them ! " 

Even as, distinct with less and greater lights, 
the Galaxy so whitens between the poles of 
the world that it makes even the wise to ques- 
tion," thus, constellated in the depth of Mars, 
those rays made the venerable sign which join- 
ings of quadrants in a circle make.'^ Here 
my memory overcomes my genius, for that 
Cross was flashing forth Christ, so that I know 
not to find worthy example. But he who 
takes his cross and follows Christ shall yet 

9. V. 89. The unuttered voice of the soul. 

10. V. 96. Whether Dante forms this word from the 
Hebrew Eli (my God), or adopts the Greek ■i^A.ios (sun), 
is uncertain. 

11. V. 99. ** Concerning the Galaxy philosophers have 
held different opinions." ConvitOy ii. 15. 

12. V. 102. The cross formed by the intersection of 
two diameters of a circle, at a right angle one with the other. 

ii6 PARADISE [vv. 107-134 

excuse me for that which I omit^ when he 
beholds Christ lightening in that glow. 

From horn to horn/^ and between the top 
and the base, lights were moving, brightly scin- 
tillating as they met together and in their pass- 
ing by. Thus here^'^ are seen the atoms of 
bodies, straight and athwart, swift and slow, 
changing appearance, long and short, moving 
through the sunbeam, wherewith sometimes the 
shade is striped which people with skill and art 
contrive for their protection. And as a viol or 
harp, strung in accord of many strings, makes 
a sweet tinkling to one by whom the tune is 
not caught, thus from the lights which there 
appeared to me a melody was gathered through 
the Cross, which rapt me without my under- 
standing the hymn. I was indeed aware that 
it was of lofty praise, because there came to 
me : " Arise and conquer ! " as to one who 
understands not, and yet hears. I was so en- 
amoured therewith that until then there had 
not been anything which had fettered me with 
such sweet bonds. Perchance my word ap- 
pears too daring, in setting lower the pleasure 
from the beautiful eyes, gazing into which my 
desire has repose. But he who considers that 
the living seals '^ of every beauty have more 

13. V. 109. From arm to arm of the cross. 

14. V. 1 12. On earth. 

1 5* ^^' 1 3 3* T^^ Heavens, which are '* die seal of 

vv. 135-139] CANTO XIV 117 

effect the higher they are, and that I had not 
there turned round to those eyes, may excuse 
me for that whereof I accuse myself in order to 
excuse myself, and may see that I speak truth ; 
for the holy pleasure is not excluded here, be- 
cause it becomes the purer as it mounts. 

mortal wax" (Canto viii. 127), increase in power as they 
are respectively nearer the Empyrean, so that every joy in 
each, as it is higher up, is greater than any in the heavens 
below. To this time Dante had felt no joy equal to that 
afforded him by this song, not even that which the eyes of 
Beatrice had afforded him in the preceding spheres. But now 
a still greater joy awaited him in turning to those eyes, to 
which, since he entered the Fifth Heaven, the Sphere of 
Mars, he had not yet turned, but which there, as elsewhere, 
were to afford the supreme delight. 

The ascent from sphere to sphere is the type of the ad- 
vance of the purified soul in knowledge of divine things, and 
of its deeper entrance into the mysteries of the faith. With 
each step the vision becomes clearer, but the things seen re- 
quire interpretadon, and the chief element in this spiritual pro- 
gress is the revelation by Theology of the significance of these 
things. This is the joy which the eyes of Beatrice afford. 
For "the eyes of this Lady," says Dante, speaking in the 
Convito of Philosophy, ** are her demonstrations, which, di- 
rected to the eyes of the understanding, enamour the deliv- 
ered soul. O sweetest and ineffable looks, the sudden captors 
of the minds of men, which appear in the demonstrations in 
the eyes of Philosophy when she discourses with her lovers ! 
Truly in you is the salvanon by which he is made blessed 
who looks on you, and is saved from the death of ignorance 
and sin." ConvitOy ii. 16, 27—37. 


Dante is welcomed by his ancestor^ Cacciaguida. — 
Cacciaguida tells of his family^ and of the simple life of 
Florence in the old days, 

A BENIGN will, wherein the love which right- 
eously inspires always manifests itself, as cupid- 
ity ' does in the evil will, imposed silence on 
that sweet lyre, and quieted the holy strings 
which the right hand of heaven slackens and 
draws tight. How shall those beings be deaf 
to righteous prayers, who, in order to give me 
the will to pray to them, were concordant in 
silence ? ^ Well is it that he should grieve with- 
out end, who, for the love of thing which does 
not last, despoils himself forever of this love. 

As, through the tranquil and pure evening 
skies, a sudden fire shoots from time to time, 
moving the eyes which were steady, and seems 
to be a star which changes place, save that from 
the region whence it was kindled nothing is 

1. V. 3. Cupidity, that is, inordinate and ill-directed 
love. See Purgatory, xviii. 62-75. 

2. V. 9. Leaving the joy of their song. 

vv. 18-36] CANTO XV 119 

lost, and it lasts short while ; so from the arm 
which extends on the right, ran a star of the 
constellation which is resplendent there, down 
to the foot of that Cross. Nor from its ribbon 
did the gem depart, but through the radial strip 
it ran along and seemed like fire behind ala- 
baster. With like affection did the shade of 
Anchises stretch forward (if our greatest Muse 
merits belief), when in Elysium he perceived 
his son.^ 

" O sanguis mens I superinfusa gratia Dei ! 
sicut tibi^ cui bis unquam coeli janua reclusa ? '' ^ 
Thus that light ; whereat I gave heed to it ; 
then I turned back my sight to my Lady, and 
on the one side and the other I was awestruck ; 
for within her eyes was glowing such a smile, 
that with my own I thought to touch the depth 
of my grace and of my Paradise. 

3. V. 27. ** And he (Anchises), when he saw Aeneas 
advancing to meet him over the grass, stretched forth both 
hands eagerly, and the tears poured down his cheeks, and 
he cried out, 'Art thou come at length?'" Aeneidy vi. 

4. V. 30. ** O blood of mine ! O overflowing grace 
of God ! To whom, as to thee, was ever the gate of Hea- 
ven twice opened?" ** Twice opened," once now, and 
to be a second time opened after death. It is the spirit of 
Cacciaguida, the great-great-grandfather of Dante, who thus 
speaks. Nothing is known of him but what the poet tells 
in this and the next canto. 

120 PARADISE [vv. 37-57 

Then, joyous to hearing and to sight, the 
spirit added to his beginning things which I did 
not understand, so deep was his speech. Nor 
did he hide himself from me by choice, but by 
necessity, for his conception was set above the 
mark of mortals. And when the bow of his 
ardent affection was so relaxed that his speech 
descended towards the mark of our understand- 
ing, the first thing that was understood by me 
was : " Blessed be Thou, Trine and One, who 
art so greatly courteous in my seed." And he 
went on : "A pleasing and long-felt hunger, 
derived from reading in the great volume where 
white or dark is never changed,^ thou hast re- 
lieved, my son, within this light ^ in which I 
speak to thee, thanks to her who clothed thee 
with plumes for the lofty flight. Thou be- 
lieves t that thy thought flows to me from Him 
who is First, even as from the unit, if that be 
known, ray out the five and six ; ^ and there- 

5. V. 51. In the mind of God, in which there is no 
change, as there is in the books of men by erasures or addi- 

6. V. 52. His own radiance. 

7. V. 57. The thought of man rays out, reflected from 
the mind of God, the prime Unity, as all numbers proceed 
from the unit ; and the thought thus becomes known to the 
blessed gazing upon God. See Canto ix. 73—75. This is 
what Donne (Sermon xxiii.) calls '* Gregory's wild specu- 
lation. Qui videt videntem omnia, omnia videt, because we 

vv. 58-81] CANTO XV 121 

fore who I am, and why I appear to thee 
more joyful than any other in this blithe throng, 
thou askest me not. Thou believest the truth ; 
for the lesser and the great of this life gaze 
upon the mirror in which, before thou thinkest, 
thou dost display thy thought. But in order 
that the sacred Love, in which I watch with 
perpetual vision, and which makes me thirst 
with sweet desire, may be fulfilled the better, 
let thy voice, secure, bold, and glad, sound 
forth the will, sound forth the desire, to which 
my answer is already decreed.** 

I turned me to Beatrice, and she heard before 
I spoke, and granted me a sign which made grow 
the wings to my desire. Then I began thus : 
" When the Prime Equality ^ appeared to you, 
the affection and the intelligence became of one 
weight for each of you ; because the Sun which 
illumined and warmed you with its heat and 
with its light is of such equality that all simili- 
tudes are defective. But will and discourse in 
mortals, for the reason which is manifest to you, 
are diversely feathered in their wings.*^ Where- 

shall see him that sees all things, we shall see all things in 
him, for then we should see the thoughts of men." 

8. V. 74. God, all whose attributes arc in perfect 

9. V. 8 1 . But will and the discourse of reason, corre- 
sponding to affection and intelligence (v. 73), arc unequal in 

122 PARADISE [vv. 82-99 

fore 1 5 who am mortal, feel myself in this in- 
equality, and therefore I give not thanks, save 
with my heart, for thy paternal welcome. Truly 
I beseech thee, living topaz, that dost ingem 
this precious jewel, that thou make me content 
with thy name ? " " O leaf of mine, in whom, 
while only awaiting, I took pleasure, I was thy 
root." Such a beginning he, answering, made 
to me. Then he said to me : " He from whom 
thy family is named,'° and who for a hundred 
years and more has circled the mountain on the 
first ledge, was my son and was thy great-grand- 
sire ; truly it behoves that thou shorten for 
him his long fatigue with thy works." Florence, 
within the ancient circuit of her walls where- 
from she still takes both tierce and nones," was 
abiding in peace, sober and modest. She had 

mortals, by reason of their human imperfection ; the affection 
is greater than the capacity to express it. 

10. V. 92. AHghiero, from whom, it would appear 
from his station in Purgatory, Dante inlierited the sin of 
pride, as well as his name. 

11. V. 96. By thy prayers. 

12. V. 90. The bell of the church called the Badia or 
Abbey, which stood close to the old walls of Florence and, 
rebuilt, still stands in the Piazza San Firenze, rang daily the 
hours for labor and for worship, and measured the time for 
the Florentines. Tierce is the first division of the canonical 
hours of the day, from six to nine ; nones, the third, from 
twelve to three. 

vv. 100-115] CANTO XV 123 

not necklace nor coronal, nor dames with orna- 
mented shoes, nor girdle which was more to be 
looked at than the person. Not yet did the 
daughter at her birth cause fear to the father, for 
the time and dowry did not outrun due mea- 
sure on this side and that.'^ She had not houses 
empty of families ; '"^ nor had Sardanapalus yet 
arrived there to show what may be done in a 
chamber.'^ Not yet by your Uccellatoio was 
Montemalo surpassed, which, as it has been 
surpassed in its rise, shall be so in its fall.'^ I 
saw Bellincion Berti '^ go girt with leather and 
bone,'^ and his dame come from her mirror 
without a painted face. And I saw him of the 
Nerli, and him of the Vecchio,"' contented with 

13. V. 105. Fear lest the age of the bride should be too 
young, her dowry too large. 

14. V. 106. Palaces too large for their occupants, built 
for ostentation. 

15. V. 107. The luxury and effeminacy of Sardanapalus 
were proverbial. 

16. V. 1 1 I . The view from Montemalo, better known as 
Monte Mario, of Rome in its splendor was not yet surpassed 
by that of Florence from the height of Uccellatoio ; and the 
fall of Florence shall be greater even than that of Rome. 

17. V. I 12. Bellincion Berti was " an honorable citizen 
of Florence," says Giovanni Villani ; "a. noble soldier," 
adds Benvenuto da Imola. He was father of the **good 
Gualdrada." See He//, xvi. 37. 

18. V. 113. With a plain leathern belt fastened with a 
clasp of bone. 

19. V, I I ij. Two ancient and honored families. 

124 PARADISE [vv. 116-132 

the unlined skin/° and their dames with the 
spindle and the thread. O fortunate women ! 
Each one was sure of her burial place ; ^' and 
as yet no one was deserted in her bed for 
France." One over the cradle kept her care- 
ful watch, and, comforting, she used the idiom 
which first amuses fathers and mothers.^^ An- 
other, drawing the tresses from her distaff, told 
to her household tales of the Trojans, of 
Fiesole, and of Rome.""* A Cianghella, a Lapo 
Salterello ^^ would then have been held as great 
a marvel as Cincinnatus or Cornelia would be 

" To so reposeful, to so fair a life of citizens, 
to such a trusty community, to such a sweet 

20. V. 116. Clothed in garments of plain dressed skin 
not covered or lined with cloth. 

21. V. 119. Not fearing to die in exile. 

22. V. 120. Left by her husband gone to seek fortune in 
France, or other foreign lands. 

23. V. 123. The playful and soothing baby-talk. 

24. V. 126. These old tales may be read in the first 
book of Villani's Chronicle. 

25. V. 128. Cianghella was a contemporary of Dante ; 
" a most arrogant and intolerable woman, and very wanton in 
her hfe," says Benvenuto da Imola. Lapo Salterello was a 
lawyer and judge, whom Benvenuto describes as " a rash and 
bad citizen, a litigious and tonguy (^linguosus') man." He 
was banished from Florence at the same time with Dante, 
March 10, 1302, his name standing third on the list. Cf. 
xvii. 61-63. 

vv. 133-148] CANTO XV 125 

inn, Mary, called on with loud cries,^*^ gave 
me ; and in your ancient Baptistery I became 
at once a Christian and Cacciaguida. Mo- 
ronto was my brother, and Eliseo ; my dame 
came to me from the valley of the Po, and 
thence was thy surname. Afterward I fol- 
lowed the emperor Conrad,^^ and he belted me 
of his soldiery,^^ so much by good deeds did 
I come into his favor. Behind him I went 
against the iniquity of that law""^ whose people 
usurp your jurisdiction,^^ through fault of the 
Pastors. There by that foul folk was I re- 
leased from the deceitful world, the love of 
which debases many souls, and I came from 
martyrdom to this peace." 

26. V. 133. The Virgin, called on in the pains of 
childbirth. Cf. Purgatory y xx. 19-21. 

27. V. 139. Conrad III. of Suabia. In 1 147 he joined 
in the disastrous second Crusade. 

28. V. 140. Made me a belted knight. 

29. V. 143. The law of Mahomet. 

30. V. 144. The Holy Land, by right belonging to the 
Christians, but of which they are dispossessed by the Saracens, 
through the fault of the Popes. 


The boast of blood. — Cacc'iaguida continues his dis- 
course concerning the old and the new Florence, 

O OUR petty nobility of blood ! If thou 
makest folk glory in thee down here, where our 
affection languishes, it will nevermore be a 
marvel to me ; for there, where appetite is not 
perverted, I mean in Heaven, I myself gloried 
in thee. Truly art thou a cloak which quickly 
shortens, so that, if naught be added from day 
to day. Time goes round about thee with his 

With the ToUy which Rome was first to tol- 
erate, in which her family least perseveres,"* my 
words began again. Whereat Beatrice, who 
was a little withdrawn, smiling, seemed like 
her, who coughed at the first fault that is writ- 
ten of Guenever.3 I began : " You are my 

1. V. lo. The plural pronoun, used as a mark of re- 
spect. This usage was introduced in the later Roman Empire. 

2. V. II. The Romans no longer show respect to those 
worthy of it. 

3 . V. 1 5 . Beatrice stands a little aside, theology having 

vv. 17-37] CANTO XVI 127 

father, you give me all confidence to speak ; 
you uplift me so that I am more than 1. 
By so many streams is my mind filled with 
gladness that it makes of itself a joy, in that 
it can bear this and not burst.'^ Tell me then, 
my beloved forefather, who were your ances- 
tors, and what were the years that were reck- 
oned in your boyhood. Tell me of the sheep- 
fold of St. John,5 how large it was then, and 
who were the people within it worthy of the 
highest seats." 

As a coal is quickened into flame at the breath- 
ing of the winds, so I saw that light glow at my 
blandishments; and as it became more beautiful 
to my eyes, so with voice more sweet and soft, 
but not with this modern speech, it said to me: 
" From that day on which Ave was said,^ unto 
the child-birth in which my mother, who now 
is sainted, v/as lightened of me with whom she 
had been burdened, this fire had come to its 

no part in this colloquy. She smiles at Dante's vainglory, 
observant, like the Dame de Malchaut, who coughed at seeing 
the first kiss received by Queen Gucnevcr from Sir Lance- 

4. V. 21. It rejoices that it has capacity to endure such 
great joy. 

5. v. 25. Florence, whose patron saint was St. John the 

6. v. 34. From the day of the Annunciation. 

128 PARADISE [vv. 38-50 

Lion 7 five hundred, fifty, and thirty times to 
reinflame itself beneath his paw.^ My ances- 
tors and I were born in the place where the 
last ward is first reached by him who runs in 
your annual game.^ Let it suffice thee to hear 
this of my elders ; as to who they were, and 
whence they came hither, silence is more be- 
coming than speech. 

" All those able to bear arms who at that 
time were there, between Mars and the Bap- 
tist,'° were the fifth of them who are living. 
But the citizenship, which is now mixed with 
Campi, with Certaldo and with Fighine," was 

7. V. 37. The Lion is the sign Leo in the Zodiac, ap- 
propriate to Mars by supposed conformity of disposition : — 

" Mars 
As he glow'd like a ruddy shield on the Lion's breast." 

Tennyson, Maud, part III. 

8. V. 39. Five hundred and eighty revolutions of Mars 
are accomplished in a few months more than ten hundred and 
ninety years. 

9. V. 42. The place designated was the boundary of 
the division of the city called that of ** the Gate of St. 
Peter," where the Corso passes by the Mercato Vecchio or 
<* Old Market.'* The races were run along the Corso on the 
24th June, the festival of St. John the Baptist. 

10. V. 47. Between the Ponte Vecchio, at the head of 
which stood the statue of Mars, and the Baptistery, — two 
points marking the circuit of the ancient walls. 

11. V. 50. Small towns in the territory of Florence, 

vv. 5i-6i] CANTO XVI 129 

to be seen pure in the lowest artisan. Oh, 
how much better it would be that those folk 
of whom I speak were neighbors, and to have 
your boundary at Galluzzo and at Trespiano," 
than to have them within, and to endure the 
stench of the churl of Aguglione,'^ and of him 
of Signa, who already has his eye sharp for bar- 
ratry ! 

" If the folk who are the most degenerate in 
the world '* had not been as a stepdame unto 
Caesar, but like a mother benignant to her son, 
there is one who has become a Florentine,'^ and 

from which, as from many others, there had been emigration 
to the thriving city, to the harm of its own people. 

12. V. 54. It would have been better to keep these 
people at a distance, as neighbors, not to admit them as fellow- 
citizens, and to have narrow bounds for the territory of the 
city. Galluzzo and Trespiano are villages some two or three 
miles only from Florence. 

13. v. 56. The churl of Aguglione was, according to 
Benvenuto da Imola, a lawyer named Baldo, ** qui fuit mag- 
nus canis." He became one of the priors of Florence in 
I 3 I 1 . He of Signa is supposed to have been one Bonifazio, 
who, says Buti, ** sold his favors and offices." 

14. V. 58. That is, the priesthood or the rulers of the 
Church : if they had not quarrelled with the Emperor, 
bringing about factions and disturbances in the world, there 
would not have been such shifting of population and of rank. 

15. V. 61. ** I have not discovered who this is," says 
Buti. Simifonti was a stronghold in the Val d' Elsa, which 
was destroyed by the Florentines in 1302. 

130 PARADISE [vv. 62-81 

is a money-changer and trader, who would have 
been turned back to Simifonti, where his grand- 
sire used to go about begging ; Montemurlo 
would still belong to its Counts, the Cerchi 
would be in the parish of Acone, and perhaps 
the Buondelmonti in Valdigreve.'^ The inter- 
mingling of persons was ever the beginning of 
harm to the city, as the food which is loaded 
on is to the body.'^ And a blind bull falls 
more headlong than the blind lamb ; and often- 
times one sword cuts more and better than five. 
If thou regard Luni and Urbisaglia,'^ how 
they have gone, and how Chiusi and Siniga- 
glia are going their way after them, it will not 
appear to thee a strange thing or a hard, to 
hear how families are undone, since even cities 
have their term. All things of yours have 
their death even as yourselves ; but it is con- 
cealed in some that last long, while lives are 

16. V. 66. The Conti Guidi, unable to defend their 
stronghold of Montemurlo from the Pistoians, had been com- 
pelled to sell it to the Florentines. The Cerchi and the 
Buondelmonti had been forced by the Florentine Com- 
mune to surrender their fortresses and to take up their abode 
in the city, where they became powerful, and where the 
bitterness of intestine discord and party strife had been greatly 
enhanced by their quarrels. 

17. V. 69. Food added to that already in process of 
digestion and which is consequently not assimilated. 

18. V. 73. Cities once great, now fallen. 

vv. 82-99] CANTO XVI 131 

short. And as the revolution of the heaven 
of the Moon covers and uncovers the shores 
without a pause, so Fortune does with Flo- 
rence. Wherefore what I shall tell of the high 
Florentines, whose fame is hidden by time, 
should not appear to thee a marvellous thing. 
I saw the Ughi, and I saw the Catellini, Filippi, 
Greci, Ormanni, and Alberichi, even in their 
decline, illustrious citizens ; and I saw, as great 
as they were old, with him of La Sannella, him 
of L' Area, and Soldanieri, and Ardinghi, and 
Bostichi.'^ Over the gate (which at present is 
laden with new felony ^° of such great weight 
that soon there will be jettison from the bark""'), 
were the Ravignani, from whom the Count 
Guido is descended, and whosoever has since 
taken the name of the high Bellincione." He 

19. V. 93. All once great families, but now extinct, or 
fallen. It is of interest to note how many of these names are 
of Teutonic origin. 

20. V. 95. Above the Gate of St. Peter rose the walls 
of the abode of the Cerchi, who, though not one of the old 
families of the city, had acquired great wealth and power, 
and making themselves the head of the White faction, became 
chief promoters of the civil strife which brought misery to 

21. v. 96. The casting overboard was the exile in i 302 
of many of the Cerchi with other leaders of the Whites. 

22. V. 99. The Count Guido married Gualdrada, the 
daughter of Bcllincione Bcrti. See Canto xv. i 1 2, and 
Heliy xvi. 37. 

132 PARADISE [vv. 100-113 

of La Pressa knew already how one should rule, 
and Galigaio already had in his house the gilded 
hilt and pummel.^^ Great were already the 
column of the Vair/* the Sacchetti, Giuochi, 
Fifanti, and Barucci, and Galli, and they who 
blush for the bushel.''^ The stock from which 
the Calfucci sprang was already great,^^ and 
already the Sizii and Arrigucci had been drawn 
to the curule chairs.^^ Oh, how great did I 
see those who have been undone by their 
pride ! ^^ and the balls of gold ^^ made Florence 
flourish with all their great deeds. So did the 
fathers of those who whenever your church is 

23. V. 102. Symbols of knighthood ; the use of gold in 
their accoutrements being reserved for knights. 

24. V. 103. The family of the Pigli, whose scutcheon 
was, in heraldic terms, gules, a pale, vair ; in other words, 
a red shield divided longitudinally by a stripe of the heraldic 
representation of the fur called vair. 

25. V. 105. The Chiaramontesi, one of whom in the 
old days, being the officer in charge of the sale of salt for the 
Commune, had cheated both the Commune and the people 
by using a false measure. See Purgatory, xii. 104, 105. 

26. V. 107. This stock was the house of the Donati. 

27. V. 108. To high civic office. 

28. V. no. The Uberti, the great family of which 
Farinata (see Hell, Canto x. ) was the most renowned mem- 

29. V. no. The Lamberti, who bore golden balls on 
their shields. For Mosca de* Lamberti, see Hell, xxviii. 

vv. 114-126] CANTO XVI 133 

vacant, become fat by staying in consistory.^" 
The overweening race which is as a dragon 
behind him who flies, and to him who shows 
tooth or purse is gentle as a lamb,^' already 
was coming up, but from small folk, so that it 
did not please Ubertin Donato that his father- 
in-law afterward made him their kinsman.^* 
Already had Caponsacco descended into the 
market place down from Fiesole, and already 
was Giuda a good citizen, and Infangato." I 
will tell a thing incredible and true : into the 
little circle one entered by a gate which was 
named for those of La Pera.^'* Every one who 

30. V. 114. The Visdomini, and the Tosinghi, guard- 
ians of the Bishopric of Florence, who had the right, during 
any vacancy of the See, of administering its revenues, and 
thus after the death of a bishop, by securing delay in the 
appointment of his successor, grew fat on the episcopal reve- 

31. V. 117. The Adimari. Benvenuto da Imola re- 
ports that one Boccacino of this family, after Dante's banish- 
ment, got possession of his property, and always afterward 
was his bitter enemy. 

32. V. 120. Ubertino de' Donati married a daughter of 
Bellincione Berti, and was displeased when her sister was 
afterwards given to one of the humble stock of the Adi- 

33. V. 123. There seems to be a touch of humor in 
these three names of " Head in bag," ** Judas," and " Bc- 

34. V. 126. The Pcruzzi, who bore the pear as a 

134 PARADISE [vv. 127-136 

bears the beautiful ensign of the great baron ^^ 
whose name and whose worth the feast of 
Thomas keeps fresh, from him had knighthood 
and privilege ; although to-day he who binds it 
with a border unites himself with the populace.^^ 
Already there were Gualterotti and Importuni ; 
and the Borgo ^^ would even now be more quiet, 
if they had gone fasting of new neighbors. 
The house of which was born your weeping,^^ 

charge upon their scutcheon. The incredible thing may have 
been that one of the gates of the city should have been named 
for a family now sunk so low as the Peruzzi. The "little 
circle ' ' was the circle of the old walls. 

35. V. 128. Hugh, imperial vicar of Tuscany in the 
time of Otho II. and Otho III., was ''the great baron." 
He died on St. Thomas's Day, December 21st, 1006, and 
was buried in the Badia, the foundation of which is ascribed 
to him ; there his monument is still to be seen, and there of 
old, on the anniversary of his death, a discourse in his praise 
was delivered. Several families, whose heads were knighted 
by him, adopted his arms, with some distinctive addition. 
His scutcheon was paly of four, argent and gules. 

36. V. 132. Giano della Bella, the great leader of 
the Florentine commonalty in the latter years of the 13 th 
century. He bore the arms of Hugh with a border of 

37. V. 134. The Borgo Sant* Apostolo, the quarter of 
the city in which these families lived, would have been more 
tranquil if the Buondelmonti had not come to take up their 
abode in it after the destruction of their stronghold of Monte- 
buono in 1 135. 

38. V. 136. The Amidei, who were the source of much 

vv. 137-1521 CANTO XVI 135 

by reason of its just indignation which has slain 
you, and put an end to your glad living, was 
honored, both itself and its consorts. Oh Buon- 
delmonte, how ill didst thou flee its nuptials 
through the persuasions of another ! ^^ Many 
would be glad who now are sorrowful, if God 
had conceded thee to the Ema'*" the first time 
that thou earnest to the city. But it behoved 
that Florence in her last hour of peace should 
ofl^er a victim to that mutilated stone which 
guards the bridge.^' 

" With these families, and with others with 
them, I saw Florence in such repose that she 
had no occasion why she should weep. With 
these families I saw her people so glorious 
and so just, that the lily was never set reversed 

of the misery of Florence, through their long and bitter feud 
with the Buondelmonti, by which the whole city was di- 

39. V. 141. The quarrel between the Amidei and the 
Buondelmonti arose from the slighting by Buondelmonte dei 
Buondelmonti of a daughter of the former house, to whom he 
was betrothed, for a daughter of the Donati, induced thereto 
by her mother. This was in 1215. 

40. V. 143. The Ema, a little stream that has to be 
crossed in coming from Montebuono to Florence. 

41. V. 147. That victim was Buondelmonte himself, 
slain by the outraged Amidei, at the foot of the mutilated 
statue of Mars, which stood at the end of the Ponte Vecchio ; 
and since that murder Florence had had no peace. 

136 PARADISE [vv. 153-154 

upon the staff, nor made vermilion by divi- 
sions/* ^ 

42. V. 154. The banner of Florence had never fallen 
into the hands of her enemies, to be reversed by them in 
scoff. Of old it had borne a vv^hite lily in a red field, but 
in 1250, when the Ghibellines were expelled, the Guelfs 
adopted a red lily in a v^rhite field, and this became the en- 
sign of the Commune. 


Dante questions Cacciaguida as to his fortunes, — CaC" 
ciaguida replies^ foretelling the exile of Dante^ and the 
renown of his Poem, 

As he who still makes fathers chary toward 
their sons came to Clymene, to ascertain con- 
cerning that which he had heard against him- 
self; ' such was I, and such was I perceived to 
be both by Beatrice, and by the holy lamp 
which previously for my sake had changed its 
station. Wherefore my Lady said to me : 
" Send forth the flame of thy desire in such 
wise that it may issue imprinted well by the 
internal stamp ; not in order that our know- 
ledge may increase through thy speech, but in 
order that thou accustom thyself to tell thy 
thirst, so that one may give thee drink." 

I. V. 3. Phacthon, son of Clymene by Apollo, having 
been told that Apollo was not his father, went to his mother 
to ascertain the truth. He makes fathers chary toward their 
sons, by reason of the calamitous result of Apollo*s granting 
his prayer to be allowed to drive the horses of the chariot of 
the Sun. 

138 PARADISE [vv. 13-33 

" O dear root of me, who so upliftest thyself 
that, even as earthly minds see that two obtuse 
angles can not be contained in a triangle, so 
thou, gazing upon the Point to which all times 
are present, dost see contingent things, ere in 
themselves they are;^ while I was conjoined 
with Virgil, up over the mountain which cures 
the souls, and while descending in the dead 
world, grave words were said to me of my 
future life ; although I feel myself truly four- 
square against the blows of chance. Where- 
fore my wish would be contented by hearing 
what fortune is drawing near for me ; for arrow 
foreseen comes more slack.'* ^ Thus said I unto 
that same light which had spoken to me before, 
and, as Beatrice willed, was my wish confessed. 

Not with ambiguous terms in which the fool- 
ish folk of old were entangled,* before the Lamb 
of God which taketh away sins had been slain, 

2. V. 17. Dost see contingent events, that is, events 
which may or may not happen, with not less certitude than 
that of a geometrical axiom. 

3. V. 27. This seems to have been a proverbial expres- 
sion. The commentators cite a verse attributed to Ovid, but 
said not to be found in his works : — '* Nam previsa minus 
laedere tela solent.'* 

In the Chronicle of Fra Salimbene, a. d. 1286, we find : 
— *' Minus enim jacula feriunt quae praevidentur. ' ' 

4. V. 32. Not with riddles such as the oracles gave out 
before they fell silent at the coming of Christ. 

vv. 34-59] CANTO XVII 139 

but with clear words and with plain speech that 
paternal love, enclosed and made manifest by 
its own smile, made answer : " Contingency, 
which does not extend outside the volume of 
your matter,^ is all depicted in the Eternal 
Vision. Yet thence it does not take necessity,^ 
more than does a ship which is going down the 
stream from the eye in which it is mirrored. 
Therefrom,^ even as sweet harmony comes to 
the ear from an organ, comes to my sight the 
time that is preparing for thee. As Hippolytus 
departed from Athens, by reason of his pitiless 
and perfidious stepmother, so from Florence 
thou must needs depart. This is willed, this 
is already sought for, and will soon be brought 
to pass, by him ^ who meditates it there where 
every day Christ is bought and sold. The 
blame will follow the injured party, in outcry, 
as is wont ; but the vengeance will be testi- 
mony to the truth which dispenses it. Thou 
shalt leave everything beloved most dearly; 
and this is the arrow which the bow of exile 
shoots first. Thou shalt make proof how the 
bread of others savors of salt, and how hard a 

5. V. 38. The material world. 

6. V. 40. From its being seen in the Eternal Vision. 

7. V. 43. From the Eternal Vision. 

8. V. 50. Boniface VIII., in Rome, where, day in, 
day out, there is traffic in the things of God. 

140 PARADISE [vv. 60-77 

path is the descending and the mounting of 
another's stairs. And that which will weigh 
heaviest upon thy shoulders will be the evil and 
senseless company ^ with which thou wilt fall 
into this valley ; '° which all ungrateful, all mad 
and malevolent will turn against thee ; but 
short while after, it, not thou, shall have the 
forehead red therefor. Of its bestiality, its own 
procedure will afford the proof; so that it will 
be well-becoming for thee to have made thee a 
party by thyself. 

" Thy first refuge and first inn shall be the 
courtesy of the great Lombard " who bears the 
holy bird upon the ladder, who will have for 
thee such benign regard that, in doing and in 
asking, between you two, that will be first, 
which between others is the slowest. With him 
shalt thou see one," who was so impressed, at 
his birth, by this strong star,'^ that his deeds 

9. V. 62. The other Florentine exiles of the party of the 

10. V. 63. This valley of exile and misfortune. 

11. V. 7 1 . Bartolommeo della Scala, lord of Verona, 
whose armorial bearings were the imperial eagle upon a ladder 

12. w. jS. Can Grande della Scala, the youngest bro- 
ther of Bartolommeo, and in 1 3 1 2, his successor as lord of 
Verona. He was made Imperial Vicar in 1 3 1 1 , and on 
him the hopes of the Ghibellines rested. 

13- "f- 77' The planet Mars. 

vv. 78-99] CANTO XVII 141 

will be notable. Not yet are the people aware 
of him, because of his young age ; for these 
wheels have revolved around him only nine 
years. But ere the Gascon cheat the lofty 
Henry '"^ some sparkles of his virtue shall ap- 
pear, in his caring not for money nor for toils. 
His magnificences shall hereafter be so known, 
that his enemies will not be able to keep their 
tongues mute about them. Look thou to him, 
P and to his benefits ; by him shall many people 
be transformed, rich and mendicant changing 
condition. And thou shalt bear hence written 
of him in thy mind, but thou shalt not tell it," 
— and he told things incredible to those who 
shall be present.'^ Then he added : " Son, these 
are the glosses on what was said to thee ; be- 
hold the snares which are hidden behind few 
revolutions.'^ Yet I would not that thou hate 
thy neighbors, because thy life has a future far 
beyond the punishment of their perfidies." 

14. V. 82. Before the Gascon Pope Clement V., under 
whom the Papal see was established at Avignon, shall deceive 
the Emperor, Henry VII., by professions of support, while 
secretly promoting opposition to his expedition to Italy in 

15. V. 93. He told of deeds such that they shall seem 
past belief even to those who witness them. 

16. V. 96. These are the explanations of the predictions 
of which thou hast sought the interpretation ; few revolutions 
of the spheres will pass before thy troubles will begin. 

142 PARADISE [vv. 100-127 

When by its silence that holy soul showed 
it had finished putting the woof into that 
web which I had held out to it, warped/^ I 
began, as he who, in doubt, longs for counsel 
from a person who sees, and wills uprightly, and 
loves : " I see well, my Father, how the time 
spurs on toward me to give me such a blow as 
is heaviest to him who most deserts himself; 
wherefore it is good that I arm me with fore- 
sight, so that if the place most dear be taken 
from me, I may not lose the others by my 
songs. Down through the world of endless 
bitterness, and over the mountain from whose 
fair summit the eyes of my Lady uplifted me, 
and then through heaven from light to light, I 
have learned that which, if I tell again, will 
have for many a savor of great bitterness ; and 
if I am a timid friend to the truth, I fear to lose 
life among those who will call this time an- 
cient." The light, within which my treasure 
that I had found there was smiling, first be- 
came flashing as a mirror of gold in the sun- 
beam ; then it replied : " A conscience dark, 
either with its own or with another's shame, 
will indeed feel thy speech to be harsh ; but 
nevertheless, all falsehood laid aside, make thy 

17. V. 102. Cacciaguida had, as it were, woven in the 
pattern of the cloth, in telling of the fliture course of Dante's 

vv. 128-142] CANTO XVII 143 

whole vision manifest, and let then the scratch- 
ing be where the itch is ; for if at the first taste 
thy voice shall be molestful, afterwards, when 
it shall be digested, it will leave vital nourish- 
ment. This cry of thine shall do as the wind, 
which strikes hardest the loftiest summits ; and 
that is no little argument of honor. Therefore 
only the souls which are known of fame have 
been shown to thee within these wheels, upon 
the mountain, and in the woeful valley ; for the 
mind of him who hears rests not, nor confirms 
its faith, by an example which has its root un- 
known and hidden, nor by other argument 
which is not apparent." '^ 

18. V. 142. Only the souls of personages well known 
have been shown to thee, to the end that their examples, 
when thou tellest of them, may be efficacious ; for examples 
of unknown persons, or arguments drawn from obscure facts, 
have little weight. 


The Spirits in the Cross of Mars. — Ascent to the 
Heaven of fupiter. — Words shaped in light upon the 
planet by the Spirits. — Denunciation of the avarice of 
the Popes, 

Now was that blessed mirror enjoying only its 
own thoughts/ and I was tasting mine, temper- 
ing the bitter with the sweet, and that Lady 
who was leading me to God said : " Change 
thy thought ; think that I am near to Him who 
lightens the burden of every wrong." I turned 
me round at the loving sound of my Comfort, 
and what love I then saw in the holy eyes, I 
here leave it ; not only because I distrust my 
own speech,* but because of the memory which 

1. V. I. Literally, "its own word"; "the interior 
conception of the mind is called the word " (5. T.'i. 34, l). 
Dante speaks of Cacciaguida as "that blessed mirror," be- 
cause the blessed spirits reflect the splendor of the Divine glory, 
and gazing upon the mind of God reflect also what they be- 
hold therein. 

2. V. I o. " The tongue is not capable of completely fol- 
lowing that which the understanding sees." Convito, iii. 3. 
126. See also Ibid. iii. 4. 18. 

vv. 11-36] CANTO XVIII 145 

cannot return so far above itself, unless another 
guide it. Thus much of that moment can I 
recount, that, again beholding her, my affection 
was free from every other desire. 

While the Eternal Pleasure, which was ray- 
ing directly upon Beatrice, was contenting me 
with its second aspect ^ from her fair face, van- 
quishing me with the light of a smile, she said 
to me : " Turn thee, and listen, for not only in 
my eyes is Paradise." 

As sometimes here the affection is seen in 
the countenance, if it be so great that the whole 
soul is taken up by it, so in the flaming of the 
holy effulgence to which I turned me, I recog- 
nized the will in it still to discourse somewhat 
with me. It began: "In this fifth seaf^ of the 
tree, which has life from its top, and always 
bears fruit, and never loses leaf, are blessed 
spirits, who below, before they came to heaven, 
were of great renown, so that every Muse 
would be rich with them.^ Therefore gaze 
upon the arms of the Cross ; he, whom I shall 
name, will there do the act which in a cloud its 
own swift fire does." At the naming of Joshua, 

3. V. 18. Its aspect reflected from the eyes of Beatrice. 

4. V. 28. Mars, the fifth resting-place in the ascent of 

5. V. 33. ** Every Muse," that is, every poet; so in 
Canto XV. 26, Dante calls Virgil **our greatest Muse." 

146 PARADISE [vv. 37-60 

even as it was done, I saw a light drawn along 
the Cross ; nor was the word noted by me be- 
fore the fact. And at the name of the lofty 
Maccabeus^ I saw another move revolving, and 
gladness was the whip of the top. Thus for 
Charlemagne and for Roland my attentive gaze 
followed two of them, as the eye follows its 
falcon as he flies. Afterward William, and 
Renouard,^ and the duke Godfrey,* and Robert 
Guiscard^ drew my sight along that Cross. 
Then, moving, and mingling among the other 
lights, the soul which had spoken with me 
showed me how great an artist it was among 
the singers of the heaven. 

I turned me round to my right side to see 
in Beatrice my duty signified either by speech 
or by act, and I saw her eyes so clear, so joy- 
ous, that her semblance surpassed her other 
and her latest wont. And even as, through 
feeling more delight in doing well, a man 
from day to day becomes aware that his virtue 

6. V. 42. Judas Maccabeus, who *' was renowned to the 
utmost part of the earth." See i Maccabees ii.-ix. 

7. V. 46. Two heroes of romance, William, Count of 
Orange, and Renouard his companion in arms, paladins of 

8. V. 47. Godfrey of Bouillon, the leader of the first 

9. V. 48. The founder of the Norman kingdom of 

vv. 61-82] CANTO XVIII 147 

makes advance, so I, seeing that miracle more 
adorned, became aware that my circling round 
together with the heaven had increased its arc. 
And such as is the change, in brief passage 
of time, in a pale lady, when her countenance 
discharges itself of the load of bashfulness, such 
was there to my eyes, when I turned, because 
of the whiteness of the temperate sixth star 
which had received me within itself. '° 1 saw, 
within that torch of Jove, the sparkling of the 
love which was there, shaping out our speech to 
my eyes. And as birds, risen from the shore, 
as if rejoicing together at their pasture, make 
of themselves a troop now round, now of other 
shape, so within the lights " holy creatures 
were singing as they flew, and in their figures 
made of themselves now D, now I, now L." 
At first, as they sang, they moved to their own 
notes, then as they became one of these char- 
acters, they stopped a little, and were silent. 
O divine Pegasea,'^ who makest the wits 

10. V. 69. The change, quick as the disappearance of a 
blush, was from the red light of Mars to the white light of 
Jupiter, a planet called by astrologers the ** temperate " star, 
as lying between the heat of Mars and the coldness of Saturn. 
See ConvitOy ii. 14. 195—202. 

11. V. 76. The sparkles of the love which was there. 

12. V. 78. The first letters of Z)/7/^/V^, ** Love ye," as 
shortly appears. 

13. V. 82. An appellation appropriate to the Muses in 

148 PARADISE [vv. 83-108 

of men glorious, and renderest them long- 
lived, as they, through thee, the cities and the 
kingdoms, illumine me with thyself that I 
may set forth their shapes, as I have conceived 
them ; let thy power appear in these brief 
verses ! 

They showed themselves then in five times 
seven vowels and consonants ; and I noted the 
parts as they seemed as if spoken to me. 
Diligite justitiam were the first verb and noun 
of all the picture ; qui judicatis terram ^* were 
the last. Then in the M of the fifth word they 
remained arranged, so that Jove seemed silver 
patterned there with gold. And I saw other 
lights descending where the top of the M was, 
and become quiet there, singing, I believe, the 
Good which moves them to Itself. Then, as 
on the striking of burning logs rise innumerable 
sparks, wherefrom the foolish are wont to draw 
auguries, so thence there seemed to rise again 
more than a thousand lights, and mount, some 
much and some little, according as the Sun 
which kindles them allotted to them ; and, each 
having become quiet in its place, I saw the head 
and the neck of an eagle represented by that 

general, whose fountain, Hippocrene, sprang up at the stamp 
of Pegasus. 

14. V. 93. ''Love righteousness, ye that be judges of 
the earth. ' ' Wisdom of Solomon i. i . 

vv. 109-127] CANTO XVIII 149 

patterned fire. He who paints there, has none 
who may guide Him, but He Himself guides, 
and from Him is recognized that virtue which 
is form for the nests.'^ The rest of the blessed 
spirits, which at first seemed content to lily 
themselves '^ on the M, with a slight motion 
followed out the imprint. 

O sweet star, what and how many gems 
made plain to me that our justice is the effect 
of that heaven which thou dost ingem ! Where- 
fore I pray the Mind, in which thy motion and 
thy virtue have beginning, that It look down 
there whence issues the smoke which vitiates thy 
radiance, so that now, a second time. It may be 
wroth at the buying and the selling in the temple, 
which was built up with blood and martyrdoms. 
O soldiery of Heaven whom I contemplate, 
pray ye for those on earth who are all gone 
astray after the bad example ! Of old it was 
the wont to make war with swords, but now it 

15. V. III. The words are obscure; they may mean 
that a virtue, or instinct, inspired by God, similar to that 
in the bird which teaches it to build its nest, impelled the 
spirits in the shaping of these letters. 

16. V. 1 1 3. Ingigliarey a word invented by Dante, and 
used only by him. The meaning is that these spirits seemed 
first like lilies on the M, then moved to join in forming the 
head and neck of an eagle. The eagle is the emblem of the 
Empire, which Dante held to be the Divine institution for 
maintaining justice upon earth. 

150 PARADISE [vv. 128-136 

is made by taking away, now here now there/' 
the bread which the pitying Father locks up 
from none. 

But thou that writest only in order to cancel/^ 
bethink thee that Peter and Paul, who died for 
the vineyard which thou art laying waste, are 
still alive. Thou canst say indeed : " I have 
my desire set so on him who willed to live alone, 
and for a dance was dragged to martyrdom,'^ 
that I know not the Fisherman nor Paul." 

17. V. 128. Making war by depriving men of the sac- 
raments of the Church by means of excommunication and in- 

18. V. 130. The Pope, who writes censures, excom- 
munications, and the like, only that he may be paid to cancel 

19. V. 135. The image of St. John Baptist was on the 
florin, which was the chief object of desire of the Pope. 


The voice of the Eagle. — // speaks of the mysteries of 
Divine justice ; of the necessity of Faith for salvation ; of 
the sins of certain kings. 

With outspread wings appeared before me 
the beautiful image which the interwoven souls, 
joyful in their sweet fruition, were making. 
Each of them appeared as a little ruby on which 
a ray of the sun should glow so enkindled as to 
reflect him into my eyes. And that which it 
now behoves me to retrace, never did voice re- 
port, nor ink write, nor was it ever comprised 
by fancy ; for I saw, and also heard the beak 
speaking, and uttering with its voice both / and 
My, when in conception it was We and Our.^ 

And it began : " Through being just and 
pious am I here exalted to that glory which 
allows not itself to be surpassed by desire ; and 
on earth I left my memory such that the evil 
people there commend it, but follow not its 
story." Thus one sole heat makes itself felt 

I. V. 12. An image of the concordant will of the Just, 
and of the unity of Justice under the Empire. 

152 PARADISE [vv. 19-44 

from many embers, even as from many loves one 
sole sound issued from that image. Whereon 
I at once : " O perpetual flowers of the eternal 
gladness, ye which make all your odors seem to 
me only one, solve for me, by your breath, the 
great fast which long has held me hungering, 
not finding for it any food on earth. Well do 
I know that if the Divine Justice makes another 
realm in heaven its mirror,"" yours does not 
apprehend it through a veil. Ye know how 
intently I prepare myself to listen ; ye know 
what is that doubt ^ which is so old a fast to 

As a falcon which, issuing from the hood, 
moves its head, and claps its wings, showing its 
will, and making itself fine; so I saw this em- 
blem, which was woven of praise of the Divine 
Grace, become, with songs such as he knows 
who thereabove rejoices. Then it began : " He 
who turned the compasses at the verge of the 
world, and distributed within it so much occult 
and manifest, could not so imprint His Power 
on all the universe that His Word should not 

2. V. 29. The reference is to the Order of the Thrones, 
the Intelligences who presided over the sphere of Saturn. In 
the ninth canto, verses 61, 62, Cunizza says : ''Above are 
mirrors, ye call them Thrones, v^rhence God in his judg- 
ments shines to us." 

3 . V. 3 3 . Concerning the Divine Justice. 

vv. 45-65] CANTO XIX 153 

remain in infinite excess."^ And this makes cer- 
tain that the first proud one, who was the top 
of every creature, through not awaiting light, 
fell immature.^ And hence it appears, that 
every lesser nature is a scant receptacle for that 
Good which has no end, and measures Itself 
by Itself. Therefore our vision, which must 
needs be one of the rays of the Mind with which 
all things are replete, cannot in its own nature be 
so potent as not to discern its origin far beyond 
that which is apparent to it.^ Therefore the 
sight into the Eternal Justice which your world 
receives ^ penetrates within as the eye into the 
sea; which, though from the shore it can see 
the bottom, on the main it sees it not, and 
nevertheless it is there, but the depth conceals 
it. There is no light but that which comes 
from the serene which is never clouded ; nay, 
rather there is darkness, either shadow of the 

4. V. 45. The Word, that is, the thought or wisdom 
of God, must infinitely exceed the expression of it in the 

5. V. 48. Lucifer fell through pride, fancying himself, 
though a created being, equal to his Creator. 'Had he awaited 
the full light of Divine grace, he would have recognized his 
own inferiority. 

6. V. 57. Our vision is not powerful enough to reach to 
the source from which it proceeds, for reach as far as it may, 
it must still see its source in God to be far beyond its range. 

7. V. 59. It is the gift of God. 

154 PARADISE [vv. 66-85 

flesh, or its poison.^ The hiding-place is now 
open enough to thee, which concealed from 
thee the living Justice concerning which thou 
didst make such frequent question ; ^ for thou 
saidst : ' A man is born on the bank of the 
Indus, and no one is there who may tell of 
Christ, nor who may read, nor who may write; 
and all his wishes and acts are good, so far as 
human reason sees, without sin in life or in 
speech. He dies unbaptized, and without faith; 
where is this Justice which condemns him? 
where is his sin if he does not believe ? ' Now 
who art thou, that, with the short vision of a 
single span, wouldst sit upon a bench to judge 
a thousand miles away? Assuredly, for him 
who subtilizes with me,'° if the Scripture were 
not above you, there would be marvelous 
occasion for doubting. Oh earthly animals ! 
oh gross minds ! " 

8. V. 66. There is no light but that which proceeds from 
God, the light of Revelation. Lacking this, man is in the 
darkness of ignorance, which is the shadow of the flesh, or of 
sin, which is its poison. 

9. V. 69. The hiding-place is the insufficiency of the 
human intellect to penetrate to the depth of the Divine de- 
crees, the justice of which man, in his self-confidence, under- 
takes to question. 

10. V. 82. Who questions concerning the mysteries of 
the Divine Justice of which I am the symbol. 

11. V. 85. The Scriptures teach you that "the judg- 

vv. 86-110] CANTO XIX 155 

" The primal Will, which of Itself is good, 
has never moved from Itself, which is the 
Supreme Good. So much is just as is conso- 
nant with It ; no created good draws It to 
itself, but It, raying forth, is the cause of that 

As the stork circles above her nest, after she 
has fed her brood, and as the one that has 
been fed looks up at her, such became the 
blessed image, which impelled by so many 
counsels '"^ moved its wings, and I so raised 
my brows. Wheeling it sang, and said : " As 
are my notes to thee who understandest them 
not, such is the Eternal Judgment to you 

After those shining flames of the Holy Spirit 
became quiet, still in the sign which made the 
Romans reverend to the world, it began again : 
" To this kingdom no one ever ascended, who 
had not believed in Christ either before or after 
he was nailed to the tree. But behold, many cry 
Christ, Christ, who, at the Judgment, shall be 
far less near to him, than some one who knows 
not Christ ; and the Ethiop will condemn such 
Christians when the two companies shall be 

ments of God are unsearchable, and His ways past finding 
out ; '* why, foolish, do ye disregard them ? 

12. V. 96. The counsels of the multitude of spirits 
composing it, uniting in a single will. 

156 PARADISE [vv. 111-125 

separated, the one forever rich, and the other 
poor. What may the Persians say to your 
kings, when they shall see that volume open in 
which are written all their dispraises ? '^ There 
shall be seen among the deeds of Albert that 
which will soon set the pen in motion, by which 
the kingdom of Prague shall be made a desert/* 
There shall be seen the woe which he who shall 
die by the blow of a wild boar is bringing upon 
the Seine by falsifying the coin.'^ There shall 
be seen the pride that quickens thirst, which 
makes the Scot and the Englishman mad, so 
that neither can keep within his own bounds.'^ 
The luxury shall be seen, and the effeminate 
living of him of Spain, and of him of Bohemia, 

13. V. 114. The Persians, who know not Christ, will 
rebuke the sins of kings professedly Christians, when the book 
of life shall be opened at the Last Judgment. 

14. V. 117. The devastation of Bohemia in 1303, by 
Albert of Austria (the *' German Albert " of the sixth canto 
of Purgatory'), will soon set in motion the pen of the record- 
ing angel. 

15. V. 119. After his terrible defeat at Courtray, in 
1302, Philip the Fair, to provide himself with means, debased 
the coin of the realm. He died in 13 14 from the effects of 
a fall from his horse, overthrown by a wild boar in the forest 
of Fontainebleau. 

16. V. 123. The wars of Edward I. and Edward II. 
with the Scotch under Wallace and Bruce were carried on 
with little intermission during the first twenty years of the 
fourteenth century. 

vv. 126-137] CANTO XIX 157 

who never knew valor, nor wished it/^ The 
goodness of the cripple of Jerusalem shall be 
seen marked with an I, while an M shall mark 
the contrary.'^ The avarice and the cowardice 
shall be seen of him who guards the island of 
the fire, where Anchises ended his long life ; 
and, to give to understand how paltry he is, 
the writing for him shall be in abridged letters 
which shall note much in little space. '^ And 
to every one shall be apparent the foul deeds 
of his uncle and of his brother,^° who have 

17. V. 126. By "him of Spain/' Ferdinand IV. of 
Castile (1295— 13 12) seems to be intended ; and by "him 
of Bohemia,'* Wenceslaus IV., "whom luxm-y and idleness 
feed;" see Purgatory ^ vii. 102. 

18. V. 129. The virtues of the lame Charles II., King 
of Naples, 1285— 1309, titular king of Jerusalem, shall be 
marked in Roman numerals with a one, but his vices with a 
thousand. The one virtue of Charles seems to have been his 
liberality ; see Canto viii. 82. 

19. V. 135. Frederick of Aragon, King of Sicily, 1296— 
1337, too worthless to have his many misdeeds written out 
m fiill ; see Purgatory, vii. 119. Charles II. from 1296 
to 1302 vainly attempted to dispossess Frederick of Sicily. 
When finally peace was made between them, Frederick mar- 
ried a daughter of Charles. Dante's scorn of Frederick was 
doubtless enhanced by his desertion of the Ghibellines after 
the death of Henry VII. 

20. V. 137. James, King of Majorca and Minorca, and 
James, King of Aragon, whose worthlessness is referred to 
in Purgatory y vii. 120. 

158 PARADISE [vv. 138-148 

dishonored so eminent a race and two crowns. 
And he of Portugal," and he of Norway " shall 
be known there ; and he of Rascia/^ who, to 
his harm, has seen the coin of Venice. Oh 
happy Hungary, if she allow herself no longer 
to be maltreated ! and happy Navarre, if she 
arm herself with the mountains which bind her 
round ! ^^ And all should believe that, for ear- 
nest of this, Nicosia and Famagosta are now 
lamenting and complaining because of their 
beast which departs not from the side of the 
others." "^ 

21. V. 139. Dionysius, King of Portugal, 1279-13 25, 
to whom a base love of money-getting was ascribed. 

22. V. 139. Hakon IV., misnamed Longshanks, 1299- 
1 3 1 9, of whose cruel wars with Denmark Dante may have 

23. V, 140. Rascia, so called from a Slavonic tribe, 
which occupied a region south of the Danube, embracing a 
part of the modern Servia and Bosnia. The kingdom was 
established in 1 170. One of its kings, Stephen Ouros, who 
died in 1307, imitated the coin of Venice with a debased 

24. V. 144. If she would make the Pyrenees her de- 
fence against France, into the hands of whose kings Navarre 
fell in 1304. 

25. V. 148. The lot of these cities in Cyprus, which 
are now lamenting under the rule of Henry II. of the house 
of Lusignan, a beast who goes along with the rest in evil doing, 
is a proof in advance of what sort of fate falls to those who 
do not defend themselves. 


The song of the Just. — Princes who have loved 
righteousness^ in the eye of the Eagle. — Spirits^ once 
Pagans^ in bliss. — Faith and Salvation. — Predestina- 

When he who illumines all the world de- 
scends from our hemisphere so that the day on 
every side is spent, the heaven, which before is 
enkindled by him alone, suddenly makes itself 
again conspicuous with many lights, wherein one 
alone is shining.' And this act of heaven came 
to my mind when the ensign of the world and 
of its leaders became silent in its blessed beak ; 
because all those living lights, shining far more, 
began songs which have lapsed and fallen from 
my memory. 

O sweet Love, that mantles t thyself with a 
smile, how ardent didst thou appear in those 
flutes^ which had the breath alone of holy 
thoughts ! 

1 . V. 6. One, that is, the sun, supposed to be the source 
of the Hght of the stars. 

2. V. 14. That is, in those singers. 

i6o PARADISE [vv. 16-42 

After the precious and shining stones, where- 
with I saw the sixth luminary ^ ingemmed, im- 
posed silence on their angelic chime, I seemed 
to hear the murmur of a stream which falls down 
clear from rock to rock, showing the abundance 
of its mountain source. And as the sound takes 
its form at the cithern's neck, and as at the vent 
of the bagpipe wind which enters it, thus, with- 
out pause of waiting, that murmur of the Eagle 
rose up through its neck, as if it were hollow. 
There it became voice, and thence it issued 
through its beak in form of words, such as the 
heart whereon I wrote them was awaiting. 

" The part in me which in mortal eagles sees 
and endures the sun," it began to me, " must 
now be gazed at fixedly, because of the fires 
whereof I make my shape, those with which the 
eye in my head is sparkling are the chief of all 
their grades. He who shines in the middle, 
as the pupil, was the singer of the Holy Spirit, 
who bore about the ark from town to town ; * 
now he knows the merit of his song, so far as 
it was the effect of his own counsel,^ by the 
remuneration which is proportioned to it. Of 

3. V. 17. The sixth planet, Jupiter. 

4. V. 39. David. See 2 Samuel vi. ; cf. Purgatory, 
X. 64-67. 

5 . V. 4 1 . So far as it proceeded from his own free will, 
open to the inspiration of grace. 

vv. 43-6i] CANTO XX i6i 

the five which make a circle for my brow, he 
who is nearest to my beak consoled the poor 
widow for her son ; ^ now he knows, by the 
experience of this sweet life and of its opposite, 
how dear it costs not to follow Christ. And he 
who on the rising arc comes next in the cir- 
cumference of which I speak, by true penitence 
delayed death ; ^ now he knows that the eternal 
judgment is not transmuted, when worthy 
prayer there below makes to-morrow's that 
which was to-day's. The next who follows,^ 
with a good intention which bore bad fruit, 
made himself Greek, together with the laws 
and me, in order to give place to the Pastor ; ^ 
now he knows how the ill deduced from his 
good action is not hurtful to him, although 
thereby the world be destroyed. And he 
whom thou seest in the down-bent arc was 

6. V. 45. Trajan. See Purgatory, x. 73—93. 

7. V. 51. King Hezekiah was sick unto death, and the 
prophet Isaiah declared to him that the Lord said : *'Thou 
shalt die.** And Hezekiah wept sore. And the Lord came 
again to Isaiah saying : *< Turn again, and tell Hezekiah that 
I have heard his prayer and seen his tears, and will heal him, 
and will add unto his days fifteen years.*' See 2 Kings xx. 
1-6 ; Isaiah xxxviii. 1—5. 

8. V. 55. The Emperor Constantine. 

9. V. 57. Constantine, by ceding Rome to the Pope, 
and by transferring the seat of empire to Constantinople, 
made himself, the laws, and the eagle, Greek. 

i62 PARADISE [vv. 62-79 

William/°whom that land deplores which weeps 
for Charles and Frederick living ; " now he 
knows how heaven is enamoured of a just king, 
and by the aspect of his effulgence makes it still 
seen. Who, down in the erring world, would 
believe that Rhipeus the Trojan " was the fifth 
of the holy lights in this circle ? Now he knows 
much of that which the world cannot see of the 
divine grace, although his sight cannot discern 
the bottom." 

Like a little lark that in the air expatiates, 
first singing, and then is silent, content with 
the last sweetness which satisfies her, such 
seemed to me the image of the imprint of the 
Eternal Pleasure, according to whose desire 
everything becomes that which it is.'^ 

And though I was there, in respect to my 

10. V. 62. William II., called ''the Good,*' King of 
Sicily and Apulia, 1 166-1 169. 

11. y. 67^, The same Charles and Frederick whom the 
Eagle has reproached in the last canto, w. 127—135. 

12. V. 68. 

** Rhipeus, iustissimus unus 
Qm fiiit in Teucris et servantissimus aequi." Aeneidy ii. 426—427. 

" Rhipeus, the one justest man and heedfullest of right among 
the Trojans.'* 

13. V. 78. So seemed the image (that is, the eagle), 
satiated with its bliss, whether in the speech or the silence 
imposed upon it by the Eternal Pleasure, in accordance with 
which all things fulfil their ends. 

vv. 80-104] CANTO XX 163 

doubt/^ like glass to the color which it clothes, 
it '5 endured not to bide its time in silence, but 
with the force of its own weight urged from my 
mouth : " What things are these ? " whereat I 
saw great festival of flashing. Then at once, 
with its eye more enkindled, the blessed en- 
sign answered me, in order not to keep me in 
wondering suspense : " I see that thou believ- 
est these things because I say them, but thou 
seest not how ; so that, although believed in, 
they are hidden. Thou dost as one who fully 
apprehends a thing by name, but cannot see its 
quiddity unless another explain it. Regnum 
coelorum '^ suffers violence from fervent love, 
and from living hope -which vanquishes the di- 
vine will ; not in such wise as man overcomes 
man, but vanquishes it, because it wills to be 
vanquished, and, vanquished, vanquishes with 
its own benignity. The first life of the eyebrow 
and the fifth make thee marvel, because thou 
seest the region of the Angels painted with them. 
From their bodies they did not issue Gentiles, 
as thou believest, but Christians, with firm faith, 

14. V. 79. How Trajan and Rhipeus could be in Para- 
dise, since none but those who had believed in Christ were 
there. See Canto xix. 103-105. 

15. V. 80. My doubt. 

16. V. 94. **The kingdom of Heaven.** Matthezo 
xi. 12. 

i64 PARADISE [vv. 105-127 

one in the Feet that were to suffer, one in the 
Feet that had suffered.'^ For the one came 
back unto his bones from Hell, where there is 
never return to righteous will ; and that was 
the reward of living hope ; of living hope, 
which put its power into the prayers made to 
God to raise him up, so that it might be pos- 
sible for his will to be moved. '^ The glorious 
soul, of whom I speak, returning to the flesh, 
in which it was but little while, believed in 
Him who had power to aid it ; and in behev- 
ing was kindled to such fire of true love, that 
at its second death it was worthy to come unto 
this festivity. The other, through grace which 
distils from a fount so deep that creature never 
pushed the eye far as its primal wave, there 
below set all his love on righteousness ; where- 
fore from grace to grace God opened his eye to 
our future redemption, so that he believed in 
it, and thenceforth endured no more the stench 
of paganism, and reproved therefor the perverse 
folk. Those three Ladies whom thou hast seen 

17. V. 105. Rhipeus died before the coming of Christ ; 
Trajan after. 

18. V. 1 1 1 . In Hell there can be neither repentance nor 
a righteous will ; and therefore, according to the legend, St. 
Gregory the Great prayed that the soul of Trajan, because of 
his great worth, might be restored to his body in life long 
enough for his will to turn to righteousness, and for him to 
profess his faith in Christ. 

vv. 128-148] CANTO XX 165 

at the right wheel '^ were to him for baptism, 
more than a thousand years before baptizing."" 
O predestination, how remote is thy root from 
the vision of those who see not the First Cause 
entire ! And ye, mortals, keep yourselves re- 
strained in judging ; for we who see God know 
not yet all the elect ; and to us such defect is 
sweet, for our good is perfected in this good, 
— that what God wills we also will/* 

Thus, to make my short sight clear, sweet 
medicine was given to me by that divine image. 
And as a good lutanist makes the vibration of 
the string accompany a good singer, whereby 
the song acquires more pleasantness, so I re- 
member that, while it spake, I saw the two 
blessed lights ^' moving their flamelets to the 
words, just as the winking of the eyes concords. 

19. V. 128. Of the Chariot drawn by the Griffon. See 
Purgatory, xxix. 121. 

20. V. 129. Before the divine institution of the rite of 
baptism, his faith, hope, and charity served him in lieu 

21. V. 106. Trajan and Rhipeus. 


Ascent to the Heaven of Saturn, — Spirits of those 
who had given themselves to devout contemplation, — The 
Golden Stairway. — St, Peter Damian, — Predestina- 
tion, — The luxury of modern Prelates, 

Already were my eyes fixed again upon the 
countenance of my Lady, and my mind with 
them, and from every other intent it was with- 
drawn ; and she was not smiling, but : " If I 
should smile," she began to me, " thou wouldst 
become such as Semele was when she became 
ashes ; for my beauty, which along the stairs of 
the eternal palace is kindled the more, as thou 
hast seen, the higher the ascent, is so resplen- 
dent that, were it not tempered, at its effulgence 
thy mortal power would be as a bough shattered 
by thunder. We are lifted to the seventh splen- 
dor, which beneath the breast of the burning 
Lion now radiates downward mingled with his 
strength.' Fix thy mind behind thine eyes, and 
make of them mirrors for the figure which in 
this mirror shall be apparent to thee." 

I. V. 15. The seventh splendor is Saturn, which was 
in the sign of the Lion, whence its rays fell to earth mingled 
with the strong influences of the sign. 

vv. 19-43] CANTO XXI 167 

He who should know what was the pasture 
of my sight in her blessed aspect, when I trans- 
ferred me to another care, would know, by 
counterpoising one side with the other, how 
pleasing it was to me to obey my celestial 

Within the crystal which, circling round the 
world, bears the name of its illustrious leader, 
under whom all wickedness lay dead,^ I saw, of 
the color of gold on which a sunbeam is shin- 
ing, a ladder rising up so high that my eye 
followed it not. I saw, moreover, so many 
splendors descending along the steps, that I 
thought every light which appears in heaven 
had been poured down from it. 

And as, by their natural custom, the daws, at 
the beginning of the day, move about together, 
in order to warm their cold feathers ; then 
some go away without return, others wheel 
round to whence they started, and others, cir- 
cling, make a stay ; ^ such fashion it seemed 
to me was here in that sparkling which came 
together, so soon as it struck on a certain 
step ; ^ and that one which stopped nearest to 

2. V. 27. Saturn, in the golden age. 

3. V. 39. Keep flying in a circle. 

4. V. 42. The splendors descending together when they 
reached a certain step divided, hke the daws, in various com- 
panies, and moved in various directions. 

i68 PARADISE [vv. 44-72 

us became so bright that I said in my thought : 
*' I see well the love which thou dost signify to 
me. But she, from whom I await the how and 
the when of speech and of silence, stays still ; 
wherefore I, contrary to desire, do well not to 
ask." Whereupon she, who saw my silence, 
in the sight of Him who sees everything, said 
to me : " Let loose thy warm desire." 

And I began : " My own merit does not 
make me worthy of thy answer ; but for her 
sake who concedes to me the asking, O blessed 
life, that art hidden within thine own joy, 
make known to me the cause which has 
placed thee so near me ; and tell why in 
this wheel the sweet symphony of Paradise is 
silent, which below through the others so de- 
voutly sounds." " Thou hast thy hearing mor- 
tal, as thy sight," it replied to me ; " therefore 
no song is here for the same reason that Beatrice 
has no smile. Down over the steps of the holy 
stairway I have descended so far, only to give 
thee glad welcome with my speech and with the 
light that mantles me ; nor has more love made 
me to be more ready, for as much and more 
love is burning up there, even as the flaming 
manifests to thee ; but the high charity, which 
makes us prompt servants to the Counsel that 
governs the world, allots here,^ even as thou 

5. V. 72. The high charity, that is the deep love which 

vv. 73-93] CANTO XXI 169 

observest." " I see well," said I, " O sacred 
lamp, how free love suffices in this Court for 
following the eternal Providence ; but this is 
what seems to me hard to discern, why thou 
alone among thy consorts wert predestined to 
this office/' ^ I had not come to the last word 
before the light made a centre of its middle, 
whirling itself like a swift millstone. Then the 
love that was within it answered : " A divine 
light is directed on me, penetrating through 
this wherein I embosom me ; the virtue of 
which, conjoined with my vision, lifts me above 
myself so far that I see the Supreme Essence 
from which it emanates.^ Thence comes the 
joy wherewith I flame, because to my vision, in 
proportion as it is clear, I match the clearness 
of my flame. But that soul in Heaven which 
is most enlightened, ^ that Seraph who has his 
eye most fixed on God, could not satisfy thy 

inspires us, in accordance with the will of God, assigns its 
part to each spirit. 

6. V. 78. At his first entrance into Paradise Dante had 
learned from Piccarda (Canto iii. 52-87) that the love with 
which the spirits in Heaven are filled made their wills one 
with the will of God ; but concerning the question of pre- 
destination, which what he had seen in the sphere of Jupiter, 
and the discourse of the Eagle thereupon, had brought vividly 
to his mind, he is perplexed. 

7. V. 87. Literally, ** from which it is milked.*' 

8. V. 91. With the Divine light. 

170 PARADISE [w. 94-119 

demand ; because that which thou askest lies so 
deep within the abyss of the eternal statute, that 
from every created sight it is cut off. And 
when thou returnest to the mortal world, carry 
this back, so that it may no longer presume to 
move its feet toward such a goal. The mind 
which shines here, on earth is smoky ; where- 
fore consider how can it do there below that 
which it cannot do though Heaven assume it." 
So did its words prescribe to me, that I left 
the question, and drew me back to ask it hum- 
bly who it was. " Between the two shores of 
Italy, and not very distant from thy native land, 
rise rocks so high that the thunders sound far 
lower down, and they form a ridge which is 
called Catria, beneath which a hermitage is con- 
secrated which was wont to be devoted to wor- 
ship only.'' ^ Thus it began again to me with 
its third speech, and then, continuing, said : 
" There in the service of God I became so 
steadfast, that, only with food of olive juice, 
lightly I used to pass the heats and frosts, con- 
tent in contemplative thoughts. That cloister 
was wont to render in abundance to these hea- 
vens ; and now it is become so empty as needs 

9. V. 1 1 1 . Catria is a high offshoot to the east from the 
chain of the Apennines, between Urbino and Gubbio. Far 
up on its side was the monastery of Santa Croce di Fonte 
Avellana, belonging to the order of the CamaldoHtes. 

vv. 120-135] CANTO XXI 171 

must soon be revealed. In that place was I 
Peter Damian/° and Peter the sinner had I been 
in the house of Our Lady on the Adriatic 
shore." Little of mortal life was remaining for 
me, when I was sought for and dragged to that 
hat " which ever is passed down from bad to 
worse. Cephas '^ came, and the great vessel of 
the Holy Spirit ''^ came, lean and barefoot, taking 
the food of whatsoever inn. Now the modern 
pastors require one to prop them up on this 
side and that, and one to lead them, so heavy 
are they, and one to hold up their trains behind. 
They cover their palfreys with their mantles, so 
that two beasts go under one hide. O Patience, 
that dost endure so much ! *' 

10. V. 1 2 1 . A famous doctor of the Church in the 
eleventh century, chiefly noted for his endeavors to improve 
the discipline of the Church. He M^as for many years abbot 
of the monastery of Fonte Avellana. 

11. V. 123. These last words are obscure, and have 
given occasion to much discussion, after w^hich they remain no 
clearer than before. It is uncertain what house of Our Lady 
on the Adriatic shore is here referred to. 

12. V. 125. The Cardinal's hat. In 1058 St. Peter 
Damian, much against his will, was made Cardinal Bishop 
of Ostia ; he died in 1072. 

13. V. 127. St. Peter. *' Thou art Simon the son of 
Jona : thou shalt be called Cephas, which is by interpreta- 
tion, a stone.'* John i. 42. 

14. V. 128. St. Paul. "He is a chosen vessel unto 
me." Acts ix. 15. 

172 PARADISE [vv. 136-142 

At these words I saw more flamelets from 
step to step descending and whirling, and every 
whirl made them more beautiful. Round about 
this one they came, and stopped, and uttered a 
cry of such deep sound that here could be none 
like it ; nor did I understand it, the thunder so 
overcame me. 


Beatrice reassures Dante. — St, Benedict appears, — 
He tells of the founding of his Order ,^ and of the falling 
away of its brethren. — Beatrice and Dante ascend to 
the Starry Heaven. — The constellation of the Twins. — 
Sight of the Earth, 

Oppressed with amazement, I turned me to 
my Guide, like a little child who always runs 
back thither where he most confides ; and she, 
like a mother who quickly succors her pale and 
breathless son with her voice, which is wont 
to reassure him, said to me : " Knowst thou 
not that thou art in Heaven? and knowst thou 
not that Heaven is all holy, and whatever is 
done here comes from righteous zeal ? How 
the song would have transformed thee, and I by 
smiling, thou canst now conceive, since the cry 
has so greatly moved thee ; in which, if thou 
hadst understood its prayers, already would be 
known to thee the vengeance which thou shalt 
see before thou diest. The sword of here on 
high cuts not in haste, nor tardily, save to the 
seeming of him who, desiring or fearing, awaits 

174 PARADISE [vv. 19-44 

it. But turn thee round now toward the others ; 
for many illustrious spirits thou shalt see, if, as 
I bid, thou carry back thy look." 

As was her pleasure I directed my eyes, and 
saw a hundred little spheres, which together 
were making themselves more beautiful with 
their mutual rays. I was standing as one who 
within himself represses the point of his desire, 
and attempts not to ask, he so fears the too- 
much. And the largest and most lustrous of 
those pearls came forward to make my wish 
concerning itself content. Then within it I 
heard : "If thou couldst see, as I do, the char- 
ity which burns among us, thy thoughts would 
be expressed; but that thou, by waiting, mayst 
not retard thy high end, I will make answer to 
thee, even to the thought about which thou 
so restrainest thyself. 

" That mountain ' on whose slope Cassino is, 
was of old frequented on its summit by the 
deluded and ill-disposed people, and I am he 
who first bore up there the name of Him 
who brought to earth the truth which so high 
exalts us : and such grace shone upon me that 
I drew away the surrounding villages from the 

I. V. 37. Monte Cassino, in the Kingdom of Naples, 
on which a temple of Apollo had stood, was chosen by St. 
Benedict (480—543) as his abode, and became the site, in 
5 29, of the parent and most famous monastery of his Order. 

vv. 45-68] CANTO XXII 175 

impious worship which seduced the world. All 
these other fires were contemplative men, kin- 
dled by that heat which brings to birth holy- 
flowers and fruits. Here is Macarius, here is 
Romualdus/ here are my brothers, who fixed 
their feet within the cloisters, and held their 
heart steadfast.*' And I to him : " The affec- 
tion which thou displayest in speaking with 
me, and the good semblance which I see and 
note in all your ardors, have expanded my con- 
fidence as the sun does the rose, when she 
becomes open as wide as she has power to be. 
Therefore I pray thee, and do thou. Father, 
assure me if I am capable of receiving so great 
grace, that I may see thee with uncovered 
shape." Whereon he : " Brother, thy high 
desire shall be fulfilled up in the last sphere, 
where are fulfilled all others and my own. 
There every desire is perfect, mature, and 
whole ; in that alone is every part there where it 
always was : for it is not in space, and it has not 
poles ; 3 and our ladder reaches up to it, so that 

2. V. 49. There was more than one St. Macarius ; but 
St. Benedict probably here refers to St. Macarius of Alexan- 
dria, a disciple of St. Antony, who did much to promote the 
monastic rule in the East. He died in 405. St. Romualdus 
was the founder of the Order of Camaldoli in 1012. 

3. V. 67. The Empyrean is immovable, having no axis 
with poles upon which it revolves, like the created spheres. 

176 PARADISE [vv. 69-94 

thus from thy sight it steals itself. Far up 
as there the patriarch Jacob saw it stretch its 
upper part, when it appeared to him so laden 
with Angels. But no one now lifts his feet from 
earth to ascend it ; and my Rule remains for 
waste of paper. The walls, which used to be an 
abbey, have become dens, and the cowls are 
sacks full of bad meal. But heavy usury is not 
levied so counter to God's pleasure, as that fruit 
which makes the heart of the monks so mad ; 
for whatsoever the Church has in keeping is all 
for the folk that ask it in God's name, not for 
kindred, or for others more vile."* The flesh of 
mortals is so soft that on earth a good beginning 
does not suffice from the springing of the oak to 
the forming of the acorn.^ Peter began with- 
out gold and without silver, and I with prayers 
and with fasting, and Francis his convent with 
humility ; and if thou lookest at the beginning 
of each, and then lookest again to where it has 
run astray, thou wilt see the white changed to 
dark. Truly, Jordan turned back, and the sea 

4. V. 84. The sin of usury is not so displeasing to God 
as the misappropriation by the monks of the alms given for 
pious uses, to the enriching of their relatives, or even their 

5. V. 87. This general reflection refers especially to 
the rapid relaxation of monastic rules from their origmal strict- 

VV.95-II8] CANTO XXII 177 

fleeing when God willed, were more marvellous 
to behold than to see succor here." ^ 

Thus he said to me, and then drew back to 
his company, and the company closed together ; 
then like a whirlwind all gathered itself upward. 

The sweet Lady urged me behind them, with 
only a sign, up over that ladder ; so did her 
virtue overcome my nature. But never here 
below, where one mounts and descends natur- 
ally, was there motion so rapid that it could 
be compared unto my wing. So may I return. 
Reader, to that devout triumph, for the sake 
of which I often bewail my sins and beat my 
breast, thou hadst not drawn out and put thy 
finger in the fire so quickly as I saw the sign 
which follows the Bull,^ and was within it. 

O glorious stars, O light impregnate with 
great virtue, from which I acknowledge all my 
genius, whatever it may be ; with you was born 
and with you was hiding himself^ he who is 
father of every mortal life, when I first felt the 
Tuscan air ; ^ and then, when grace was bestowed 

6. V. 96. Were God now to interpose to correct the 
evils of the Charch, the marvel would be less than that of the 
miracles of old, because the need is greater. 

7. V. no. The sign of the Gemini, or Twins, in the 
Heaven of the Fixed Stars. 

8. V. 115. That is, "was rising and was setting.** 

9. V. 1 17. At the time of Dante's birth the sun was in 
the sign of the Twins. 

178 PARADISE [vv. 119-141 

on me to enter within the lofty wheel which turns 
you, your region was allotted to me. To you 
my soul now devoutly sighs that it may acquire 
virtue for the hard pass which draws her to it- 

" Thou art so near the ultimate salvation/' 
began Beatrice, " that thou oughtest to have 
thine eyes clear and keen. And therefore ere 
thou enter farther into it, look back down- 
ward, and see how great a world I have already 
set beneath thy feet, in order that thy heart 
may present itself joyous to its utmost unto the 
triumphant throng which comes glad through 
this round ether." With my sight I returned 
through all and each of the seven spheres, and 
saw this globe " such that I smiled at its mean 
semblance ; and that counsel I approve as best 
which holds it of least account ; and he who 
thinks of other things may be called truly 
righteous. I saw the daughter of Latona en- 
kindled without that shadow which had been 
the cause why I once believed her rare and 

10. V. 123. The order of the Angelic Intelligences who 
are the movers of the Heaven of the Fixed Stars, is that 
of the Cherubim, whose name signifies Plenitude of Know- 
ledge. It is their light which Dante craves to enable him 
fitly to complete his task in the description of his vision of 

11. v. 134. The earth. 

vv. 142-154] CANTO XXII 179 

dense." The aspect of thy son, Hyperion/^ 
here I endured, and I saw how Maiaand Dione '^ 
move around and near him. Then appeared to 
me the temperateness of Jove, between his 
father and his son,'^ and then was clear to me 
the varying which they make in their position. 
And all the seven were displayed to me, — how 
great they are and how swift they are, and how 
far apart they are in their abodes. While I was 
revolving with the eternal Twins, the little 
threshing-floor '^ which makes us so fierce all 
appeared to me, from its hills to its river- 

Then I turned back my eyes to the beautiful 

12. V. 141. From his station in the Heaven of the Fixed 
Stars Dante saw the other face of the moon than that which 
is seen from the earth, so that its dusky marks were not appar- 
ent to him. Cf. Canto ii. 49—148. 

13. V. 142. The Titan Hyperion was held to be the 
father of Helios, the Sun. 

14. V. 144. Maia and Dione were respectively the 
mothers of Mercury and Venus, and by their names these 
planets are here designated. 

15. V. 146. Saturn and Mars. 

16. V. 151. The inhabited earth. 


The Triumph of Christ. 

As the bird, among the beloved leaves, hav- 
ing reposed on the nest of her sweet brood 
through the night which hides things from us, 
who, in order to see their longed-for looks and 
to find the food wherewith she may feed them, 
in which her heavy toils are pleasing to her, an- 
ticipates the time, upon the open twig, and with 
ardent affection awaits the sun, fixedly looking 
till the dawn may break ; so was my Lady, 
standing erect and expectant, turned toward 
the region beneath which the sun shows least 
haste ; ' so that I, seeing her rapt and eager, 
became such as he who in desire would fain 
have something else and in hope is satisfied. 
But short while was there between one and the 
other when ; of my awaiting, I mean, and of 
my seeing the heavens become more and more 
resplendent. And Beatrice said : " Behold the 
hosts of the Triumph of Christ, and all the fruit 
harvested by the revolution of these spheres." * 

1 . V. I 2. The meridian. 

2. V. 21. By the beneficent influences of the planets. 

vv. 22-47] CANTO XXIII i8i 

It seemed to me her face was all aflame, and her 
eyes were so full of joy that I must needs pass 
on without description. 

As in the clear skies at the full moon Trivia ' 
smiles among the eternal nymphs who paint 
the heaven through all its depths, I saw, above 
thousands of lamps, a Sun that was enkindling 
each and all of them, as ours kindles the super- 
nal shows ; ^ and through its living light the 
lucent Substance ^ gleamed so bright upon my 
face that I sustained it not. 

Oh Beatrice, sweet guide and dear ! 

She said to me : " That which overcomes thee 
is a virtue against which naught defends itself. 
Here is the Wisdom and the Power that opened 
the roads between heaven and earth, for which 
there erst had been such long desire." 

As fire is unlocked from a cloud, by dilating 
so that it has not room there, and contrary to 
its own nature falls down to earth, so my mind, 
becoming greater amid those feasts, issued from 
itself, and what it became it cannot remember. 

" Open thine eyes and look on what I am ; 
thou hast seen things such that thou art become 

3. V. 26. An appellation of Diana, and hence of the 

4. V. 30. *' With the light of the Sun all the other 
stars are informed." Co/witOy li. 14. 125. 

5. V. 32. Christ in his glorified body. 

i82 PARADISE [vv. 48-75 

able to sustain my smile." I was as one who 
comes to himself from a forgotten vision and 
endeavors in vain to bring it back to mind, 
when I heard this invitation, worthy of such 
gratitude that it is never to be effaced from the 
book which records the past. If now all those 
tongues which Polyhymnia and her sisters made 
most rich with their sweetest milk should sound 
to aid me, it would not come to a thousandth 
of the truth in singing the holy smile and how 
it lighted up the holy face. And thus, depict- 
ing Paradise, the consecrated poem must needs 
make a leap, even as one who finds his way cut 
off. But whoso should consider the ponderous 
theme and the mortal shoulder which is laden 
therewith would not blame it if under this it 
tremble. It is no voyage for a little barque, 
this which my venturous prow goes cleaving, 
nor for a pilot who would spare himself. 

" Why does my face so enamour thee that 
thou turnest not to the fair garden which blos- 
soms beneath the rays of Christ ? Here is the 
Rose,^ in which the Divine Word became flesh : 
here are the lilies ^ by whose odor the good way 
was taken." 

6. V. 73. The Virgin. 

7. V. 74. The Apostles and Saints. The image is de- 
rived from St. Paul (2 Corinthians ii. 14) : "Now thanks 
be unto God, which always causeth us to triumph in Christ, 

vv. 76-95] CANTO XXIII 183 

Thus Beatrice : and I, who to her counsels 
was wholly ready, again gave myself up to the 
battle of the feeble brows. 

As my eyes, covered with a shadow, have ere 
now seen a meadow of flowers under a sunbeam 
which streams bright through a rifted cloud, 
so saw I many throngs of splendors flashed 
upon from above by burning rays, though I saw 
not the source of the gleams. O benignant 
Power which dost so imprint them, thou didst 
raise thyself on high to bestow scope there for 
my eyes, which were powerless.^ 

The name of the fair flower which I ever in- 
voke, both morning and evening, wholly con- 
strained my mind to gaze upon the greater fire.^ 
And when the brightness and the magnitude '° 
of the living star, which up there conquers 
as it conquered here below, were depicted in 
both my eyes, from within the mid heavens a 
torch, formed in a circle in fashion of a crown, 

and maketh manifest the savour of his knowledge by us in 
every place." In the Vulgate the v^^ords are, *'odorem 
notitiae suae manifestat per nos." 

8. V. 87. The eyes of Dante, incapable of enduring the 
sight of the glorified body of Christ, are able, w^hen that is 
withdrawn on high, to look upon those whom the light of 
Christ illumines. 

9. V. 90. The Virgin, — Rosa mistica^ — the brightest 
of all the host that remained. 

10. V. 92. Literally, ** the quality and the quantity.** 

i84 PARADISE [w. 96-123 

descended, and engirt her, and revolved around 
her. Whatever melody sounds sweetest here 
below, and to itself most draws the soul, would 
seem a cloud which, being rent, thunders, com- 
pared with the sound of that lyre wherewith was 
crowned the beauteous sapphire by which the 
brightest Heaven is ensapphired. " I am An- 
gelic Love, and I circle round the lofty joy 
which breathes from out the womb which was 
the hostelry of our Desire ; and I shall circle, 
Lady of Heaven, until thou shalt follow thy 
Son and make the supreme sphere more divine 
because thou enterest it." Thus the circling 
melody sealed itself, and all the other lights 
made the name of Mary resound. 

The royal mantle " of all the revolutions of 
the world, which is most fervid and most quick- 
ened in the breath of God and in His ways, had 
its inner shore so distant above us that sight 
of it, there where I was, did not yet appear 
to me. Therefore my eyes had not power to 
follow the crowned flame, which mounted up- 
ward after her offspring. And as an infant 
which, .when it has taken the milk, stretches its 
arms toward its mother, because of its affection 
which flames up outwardly, each of these splen- 

II. V. 112. The Primum Mobile, the ninth Heaven, 
which, enveloping the other spheres, revolves around them 
and causfes them to revolve. 

vv. 124-139] CANTO XXIII 185 

dors stretched upward with its flame, so that the 
exalted love which they had for Mary was mani- 
fest to me. Then they remained there in my 
sight, singing Regina coeli " so sweetly that never 
has the delight departed from me. Oh how 
great is the abundance which is heaped up in 
those most rich coffers which were good fields 
for sowing here below ! '^ Here they live and 
enjoy the treasure which was acquired while 
they wept in the exile of Babylon, where the 
gold was left aside. '^ Here, under the exalted 
Son of God and of Mary, together with the 
ancient and with the new council, he triumphs 
in his victory who holds the keys of such 

12. V. I 28. ** O Queen of Heaven ; " the first words 
of an antiphon sung in the office of the Virgin at Compline 
on certain days after Easter. It is as follows, and its ap- 
propriateness here is manifest : ** O Queen of Heaven, re- 
joice, for He whom thou wert worthy to bear rose as he 
promised ; pray to God for us. Hallelujah." 

13. V. 132. ** Those most rich coffers," those blessed 
souls, now in the full enjoyment of Heaven, which were 
good ground for the seed of righteousness on earth. 

14. V. I 3 5. Despising the treasures of the world, in the 
Babylonish exile of this life, they laid up for themselves 
treasures in Heaven. 

15. V. 139. Here St. Peter, in company with the saints 
of the Old and of the New Covenant, triumphs in the victory 
of the Church. 


St, Peter examines Dante concerning Faith^ and ap~ 
proves his answer, 

" O FELLOWSHIP elect to the great supper of 
the blessed Lamb, who feeds you so that your 
desire is always full, since by grace of God this 
man foretastes of that which falls from your 
table, before death prescribe the time for him, 
give heed to his immense longing, and somewhat 
bedew him ; ye drink ever of the fount whence 
comes that of which he is thinking." ^ Thus 
Beatrice ; and those glad souls made themselves 
spheres upon fixed poles, flaming brightly after 
the manner of comets. And as wheels within 
the fittings of clocks revolve, so that to him 
who gives heed the first seems quiet, and the 
last to fly, so these carols,"" differently dancing, 
swift and slow, made me rate their riches. 

1. V. 9. " Ye drink ever from the Divine source of the 
truth on which his mind is set, and concerning which he 
needs the enlightenment which ye can give him." 

2. V. 16. A carol was a dance with song ; here used 
for the revolving circles of the spirits, the difference in the 
speed of which gave to Dante the measure of the respective 
blessedness of the saints who composed them. 

vv. 19-45] CANTO XXIV 187 

From the one which I noted of greatest 
beauty, I saw issue a fire so happy that it left 
there none of greater brightness ; and it re- 
volved three times round Beatrice with a song 
so divine that my fancy repeats it not to me ; 
wherefore my pen makes a leap, and I write it 
not, for our imagination, much more our speech, 
is of too vivid color for such folds.^ " O holy 
sister mine, who dost so devoutly pray to us, 
by thine ardent affection thou dost unloose me 
from that fair sphere : " after it had stopped, 
the blessed fire directed to my Lady its breath, 
which spoke thus as I have said. And she: 
" O light eternal of the great man to whom our 
Lord left the keys, which he bore below, of this 
marvellous joy, test this man on points light 
and grave, as pleases thee, concerning the Faith, 
through which thou didst walk upon the sea. 
If he loves rightly, and hopes rightly, and be- 
lieves, is not hidden from thee, for thou hast 
thy sight there where everything is seen de- 
picted. But since this realm has made citi- 
zens by the true faith, it is well that to glorify 
it speech of it should fall to him."^ 

3. V. 27. The metaphor is a little obscure ; the mean- 
ing seems to be, that our imagination and our speech are in- 
capable of describing such delights as this divine song, even 
as too lively colors are unfit for depicdng the folds in drapery. 

4. v. 4.5. The meaning seems to be : Thou knowest 

i88 PARADISE [w. 46-64 

Even as the bachelor arms himself, — and 
dost not speak, until the master propounds 
the question, — in order to adduce the proof, 
not to decide it,^ so, while she was speaking, I 
was arming me with every reason, in order to 
be ready for such a questioner, and for such a 

" Speak, good Christian, declare thyself ; 
Faith, what is it ? " Whereon I raised my brow 
to that light whence this was breathed forth, 
then turned me to Beatrice, and she made 
prompt signals to me that I should pour the 
water forth from my internal fount. " May 
the Grace," I began, " which grants to me that 
I confess myself to the chief centurion cause my 
conceptions to be well expressed." And I went 
on : " As the veracious pen. Father, of thy dear 
brother ^ (who with thee set Rome on the good 
track) wrote of it. Faith is the substance of things 

that he has true faith, and since by faith one becomes a citi- 
zen of this realm, it is well that he should celebrate it. 

5. V. 48. The bachelor at a university before proceed- 
ing to the Degree of Doctor was required to pass an exami- 
nation or maintain a thesis propounded by a Master. Du- 
cange cites from the old Statute of the University of Paris 
words which afford a good illustration of Dante's verses : — 
** Quilibet Baccalaureus in Theologia . . . tenebitur respondere 
in Theologia ad minus semel de disputatione tentativa sub 

6. V. 62. St. Paul. 

vv. 65-85] CANTO XXIV 189 

hoped for, and evidence of things not seen : ^ 
and this appears to me its essence." Then I 
heard : " Rightly dost thou think, if thou un- 
derstandest well why he placed it among the 
substances, and then among the evidences/* 
And I thereon : " The deep things which grant 
unto me here the sight of themselves, are so 
hidden to eyes below that there their existence 
is in belief alone, upon which the lofty hope is 
founded, and therefore it takes the designation 
of substance ; and from this belief we needs 
must syllogize, without having other sight, 
wherefore it receives the designation of evi- 
dence."^ Then I heard: "If all that is ac- 
quired down below for doctrine, were so under- 
stood, the wit of sophist would have no place 
there." These words were breathed forth from 
that enkindled love ; then it added : " Very well 
have the alloy and the weight of this coin been 
now gone over, but tell me if thou hast it in thy 

7. V. 65. Hebrews xi. i. 

8. V. 78. The argument is as follows : The things of 
the spiritual world having no visible existence upon earth, the 
hope of blessedness rests only on belief unsupported by mate- 
rial proof; this belief is Faith, and since on it alone does our 
high hope rest, it is properly called its substance, that is, 
what stands under it, its support. See, for this signification of 
substance, S. T. i. 29. 2. And since our belief supplies all 
our material for reasoning concerning spiritual things. Faith is 
also properly called evidence. 

190 PARADISE [vv. 86-102 

purse ? " Whereupon I : " Yes, I have it so 
shining and so round that in its stamp nothing 
is doubtful to me." Then issued from the 
deep light which was shining there : " This pre- 
cious jewel, whereon every virtue is founded, 
whence came it to thee ? " And I : " The abun- 
dant rain of the Heavenly Spirit, which is shed 
over the Old and over the New parchments, is 
a syllogism which has proved it to me with such 
acuteness, that in comparison with this every 
demonstration seems to me obtuse." ^ I heard 
then : " The Old proposition and the New 
which are so conclusive to thee, — why dost 
thou hold them for Divine speech ? " '° And I : 
" The proof which discloses the truth to me are 
the works that followed, for which nature never 
heated iron, nor beat anvil." " It was replied 

9. V. 96. The inspiration of the Holy Spirit manifest in 
the Old and the New Testament is an irresistible argument 
for our Faith. 

10. V. 98. <'The Old and the New Testament being 
thus the two propositions or premises from which thou draw- 
est thy conclusion, what proof hast thou that thy conclusion 
that they are the word of God is correct ? *' 

11. V. I o I . The miracles afford proof that the Bible is 
the word of God. But, replies St. Peter, it is from the 
Bible that you learn of the miracles. How then do they afford 
proof of its inspiration ? To which Dante answers, that the 
conversion of the world to Christianity without miracles 
would have been a miracle so much more marvellous than 

vv. 103-125] CANTO XXIV 191 

to me : " Say, what assures thee that these 
works were ? The very thing itself which re- 
quires to be proved, naught else, affirms it to 
thee/* " If the world were converted to Chris- 
tianity," said I, " without miracles, this alone is 
such that the others are not the hundredth part ; 
for thou didst enter poor and fasting into the 
field to sow the good plant, which once was a 
vine and now has become a bramble." 

This ended, the high holy Court resounded 
through the spheres a " We praise thee, 
O God," in the melody which up there is 

And that Baron " who thus from branch to 
branch, examining, had now drawn me on, so 
that we were approaching the last leaves, began 
again : " The Grace that holds courteous con- 
verse with thy mind has opened thy mouth thus 
far as it should be opened, so that I approve 
that which has issued forth, but now it is befit- 
ting to express what thou believest, and whence 
it was offered to thy belief" " O holy father, 
spirit who seest that which thou didst so believe 
that thou, toward the sepulchre, didst outdo 

those reported in the Scriptures, that the latter must be 

12. V. 1 1 5. During the Middle Ages this term of high 
dignity was not infrcquendy applied to the most eminent 
among the Saints, and even to Christ himself. 

192 PARADISE [vv. 126-154 

younger feet," '^ began I, " thou wishest that 
I should here declare the form of my ready 
belief, and also thou hast asked the cause of it. 
And I answer : I believe in one God, sole and 
eternal, who, unmoved, moves all the Heavens 
with love and with desire ; and for such belief 
I have not only proofs physical and metaphy- 
sical, but that truth also gives it to me which 
hence rains down through Moses, through 
Prophets, and through Psalms, through the 
Gospel, and through you who wrote after the 
fiery Spirit made you reverend. And I believe 
in three Eternal Persons, and these I believe to 
be one essence, so one and so threefold that it 
will admit to be conjoined with are and is. Of 
the profound divine condition on which I touch, 
the evangelic doctrine many times sets the seal 
upon my mind. This is the beginning, this 
is the spark which afterwards dilates into a 
vivid flame, and like a star in heaven scintil- 
lates within me." 

Even as a lord who hears what pleases him, 
thereon, rejoicing in the news, embraces his ser- 
vant, soon as he is silent, thus, blessing me as 
he sang, the apostolic light, at whose command 
I had spoken, thrice encircled me when I was 
silent; so had I pleased him in my speech. 

13. V. 1 26. ** The other disciple did outrun Peter," but 
Peter first ** went into the sepulchre." See John xx. 4-6. 


St. jfames examines Dante concerning Hope. — St. 
John appears^ with a brightness so da%%ling as to deprive 
Dante.^ for the time., of sight. 

If it ever happen that the sacred poem to 
which both heaven and earth have so set hand, 
that it has made me lean for many years, should 
overcome the cruelty which bars me out of the 
fair sheepfold, where a lamb I slept, foe to the 
wolves that give it war, then with other voice, 
with other fleece, a Poet will I return, and on 
the font of my baptism will I take the crown ; 
because there I entered into the Faith which 
makes the souls known to God ; and afterward 
Peter, for its sake, thus encircled my brow. 

Then a light moved toward us from that 
sphere whence had issued the first-fruit which 
Christ left of Plis vicars; and my Lady, full 
of gladness, said to me : " Look, look ! behold 
the Baron for whose sake there below Galicia is 
visited." ' 

I. V. I 8. It was believed that St. James, the brother of 

194 PARADISE [w. 19-34 

As when the dove alights near his mate, and 
each, circling and cooing, displays its affection 
to the other, so by the one great Prince glorious 
I saw the other greeted, praising the food which 
feeds them thereabove. But after their gratu- 
lation was completed, silent coram me ^ each 
stopped, so blazing that it overcame my sight. 
Then Beatrice, smiling, said : " Illustrious life, 
by whom the bounty of our basilica was writ- 
ten,^ do thou make Hope resound upon this 
height ; thou knowest that thou dost represent 
it as many times as Jesus displayed most bright- 
ness to the three." ^ " Lift up thy head, and 

St. John, was buried at Compostella, in Galicia. His shrine 
was one of the chief objects of pilgrimage during the Middle 
Ages. Froissart says (iii. 30) : "Or eurent ils affection 
et devotion d'aller en pelerinage au Baron Saint Jacques.'* 

2. V. 26. ''Before me." Here, as sometimes else- 
where, it is not evident why Dante uses Latin words. 

3. V. 30. The reference is to the Epistle of James, 
which Dante, falling into a common error, attributes to St. 
James the Greater. The special words he had in mind may 
have been : " God, that giveth to all men liberally," i. 5 ; 
and *' Every good gift and every perfect gift is from above, 
and cometh down from the Father of lights," i. 17. By 
"basilica " is meant the royal court of heaven. 

4. V. 33. Peter, James, and John were chosen by their 
Master to be present at the raising of the daughter of Jairus, 
at his Transfiguration, and at his Agony in the Garden. As 
Peter personified Faith, and John Love, James was held to be 
the personification of Hope. 

vv. 35-57] CANTO XXV 195 

mind thou reassure thyself; for that which 
comes up here from the mortal world needs 
must be ripened in our rays." This comfort 
came to me from the second fire ; whereon I 
lifted up my eyes unto the mountains which 
had bent them down before with excess of 

" Since, through grace, our Emperor wills 
that thou, before thy death, come face to face 
with his Counts in His most secret hall, so that, 
having seen the truth of this Court, thou may- 
est therewith confirm in thyself and others the 
Hope which there below rightly enamours, say 
what it is, and how thy mind blossoms with it, 
and say whence it came to thee ; " thus further 
did the second light proceed. And that com- 
passionate one, who guided the feathers of my 
wings to such lofty flight, thus in the reply an- 
ticipated me : ^ " The Church militant has not 
any child possessed of more hope, as is written 
in the Sun which irradiates all our band ; there- 
fore It is conceded to him, that from Egypt he 
should come to Jerusalem, to behold, before 
his term of warfare is completed.*^ The other 

5. V. 51. Beatrice answers the question to which the 
reply, had it been left to Dante, might seem to involve self- 

6. V. 57. Before his term of service in the Church mil- 
itant on earth has expired. 

196 PARADISE [vv. 58-80 

two points which are asked not for sake of 
knowing, but that he may report how greatly 
this virtue is pleasing to thee, I leave to him, 
for they will not be difficult to him, nor of 
vainglory, and let him answer thereto, and may 
the grace of God accord this to him." 

As a scholar who follows his teacher, prompt 
and glad in that wherein he is expert, so that 
his worth may be disclosed : " Hope," said I, 
" is a sure expectation of future glory, which 
divine grace produces, and preceding merit/ 
From many stars this light comes to me, but 
he first instilled it into my heart who was the 
supreme singer of the Supreme Leader. ' Let 
them hope in Thee, who know Thy name,' he 
says in his theody ; ^ and who knows it not, if 
he has my faith ? Thou afterwards in thy 
Epistle 9 didst instil it into me together with his 
instilling, so that I am full, and upon others 
shower down your rain." 

While I was speaking, within the living 
bosom of that fire a Hash was trembling, sud- 

7. V. 69. These words are taken directly from Peter 
Lombard, Liber Sententiarum, iii. 26. 

8. V. 73. Divine song: ** And they that know thy 
name will put their trust in thee." Psalm ix. 10. 

9. Y. 77. There is no direct mention of hope in the 
Epistle of James, but much which breathes its spirit, as, for 
instance, "Be ye also patient ; stablish your hearts ; for the 
coming of the Lord draweth nigh." v. 8. 

vv. 81-98] CANTO XXV 197 

den and frequent, in the manner of lightning. 
Then it breathed : " The love wherewith I still 
glow toward the virtue which followed me even 
to the palm, and to the issue of the field, wills 
that I breathe again to thee, who dost delight 
in it ; and it is my pleasure, that thou tell that 
which Hope promises to thee." And I : " The 
new and the old Scriptures set up the mark, and 
that points it out to me.'° Of the souls whom 
God hath made his friends, Isaiah says that 
each one shall be clothed in his own land with 
a double garment," and his own land is this 
sweet life ; and thy brother, far more explicitly, 
there where he treats of the white robes, makes 
manifest to us this revelation." " » 

At first, close on the end of these words, 
*' Sp event in te'' ^^ was heard above us, to which 

10. V. 89. These obscure words may perhaps be inter- 
preted, the Scriptures indicate in symbolic terms that which 
we are to hope for, and these symbols point it out to me. 
In the next sentence Dante mentions two of the symbols, 
and declares their meaning. 

11. V. 92. ** Therefore in their land they shall possess 
the double : everlasting joy shall be unto them." Isaiah 
Ixi. 7. In the possession by the friends of God of the 
double vesture of the glorified natural body and of the spir- 
itual body, will be the fulness of their capacity of enjoyment 
of the bliss of Heaven. 

12. v. 96. Revelation s\\. 9-17. 

13. v. 98. ** Et sperent in te, qui noverunt nomen 

198 PARADISE [vv. 99-117 

all the carols made answer ; then among them 
a light became so bright that, if the Crab had 
one such crystal, winter would have a month of 
one sole day.'^ And as a glad maiden rises and 
goes and enters in the dance, only to do honor 
to the new bride, and not for any failing,'^ so 
did I see the brightened splendor come to the 
two who were turning in a wheel, such as was 
befitting their ardent love. It set itself there 
into the song and into the measure, and my 
Lady kept her gaze upon them, even as a bride 
silent and motionless. " This is he who lay 
upon the breast of our Pelican,'^ and who was 
chosen from upon the cross for the great office." '^ 
Thus my Lady ; but no more after than before 
her words did she move her look from its fixed 

tuum,'* is the Vulgate rendering of the first words oi Psalm 
ix. 10 ; in the EngHsh version : *' They that know thy name 
will put their trust in thee." 

14. V. 102. If the sign of Cancer, which rises at sunset 
in early winter, had a star as bright as this light, the night 
would be light as day. It is the light with which St. John 
is clothed. 

15. V. 105. Not for vanity, or love of display. 

16. V. 1 13. A common type of Christ during the Mid- 
dle Ages, because of the popular belief that the pelican killed 
its brood, and then revived them with its blood. 

17. V. 1 14. " Then saith he to the disciple. Behold thy 
mother ! and from that hour that disciple took her unto his 
own home." John xix. 27. 

vv. 118-134] CANTO XXV 199 

attention. As is he who gazes and endeavors 
to see the sun a little eclipsed, and who through 
seeing becomes sightless, so did I become in 
respect to that last fire, till it was said: "Why 
dost thou dazzle thyself in order to see a thing 
which has no place here ? '^ On earth my body 
is earth ; and it will be there with the others 
until our number corresponds with the eternal 
purpose.'^ With the two robes in the blessed 
cloister are only those two lights which as- 
cended : ^° and this thou shalt carry back unto 
your world." 

At this word the flaming gyre became quiet, 
together with the sweet mingling made of the 
sound of the trinal breath,^' even as, for avoid- 
ing of fatigue or danger, the oars, erst driven 

18. V. 123. Dante seeks to see whether St. John is pre- 
sent in the earthly as well as the spiritual body ; his desire 
having its source in the words of the Gospel : ** Jesus saith 
unto him. If I will that he tarry till I come, what is that to 
thee ? . . . Then went this saying abroad among the breth- 
ren, that that disciple should not die." John xxi. 22, 23. 
From these words arose a legend that, immediately on his 
apparent death, St. John, still in the body, was taken up to 

19. V. 126. Till the predestined number of the elect is 

20. V. 128. Jesus and Mary, who had been seen to 
ascend. See Canto xxiii. vv. 86, 120. 

21. V. 132. The voices of the three apostles. 

200 PARADISE [vv. 135-139 

through the water, all stop at the sound of a 

Ah ! how greatly was I disturbed in mind, 
when I turned to see Beatrice, at not being able 
to see her,^^ although I was near her, and in 
the happy world. 

22. V. 138. Because blinded by the excess of light 
shiniifg out from St. John. 


St. "John examines Dante concerning Love. — Dante's 
sight restored. — Adam appears^ and answers questions 
put to him by Dante. 

While I was apprehensive because of my 
quenched sight, a breath which made me atten- 
tive issued from the effulgent flame that had 
quenched it, saying : " While thou art regain- 
ing the sense of sight which thou hast consumed 
on me, it is well that thou make up for it by 
discourse. Begin then, and tell at what thy soul 
is aimed, and make thy reckoning that thy sight 
is confounded in thee and not dead; because the 
Lady who conducts thee through this divine 
region has in her look the virtue which the 
hand of Ananias had."' I said: "At her 
pleasure, or soon or late, let the cure come to 
the eyes which were the gates when she entered 
with the fire wherewith I ever burn. The 
Good which makes this court content is Alpha 
and Omega of every scripture that Love reads 

I. V. 12. The power of restoring sight. See Acts \x. 

202 PARADISE [vv. 18-41 

to me, either low or loud." ^ That same voice 
which had taken from me fear in regard to the 
sudden dazzling, laid on me the charge to speak 
further, and said : " Surely with a finer sieve it 
behoves thee to sift ; it behoves thee to tell who 
directed thy bow to such a target." And I : 
" By philosophic arguments and by authority 
that descends from here, such love must needs 
be impressed on me ; for the good, inasmuch 
as it is good, as soon as it is understood, kindles 
love ; and so much the greater as the more of 
goodness it comprises in itself. Therefore, to 
the Essence (wherein is such supremacy that 
every good which is found outside of It is 
naught else than a beam of Its own radiance), 
more than to any other, the mind of every one 
who discerns the truth on which this argument 
is founded must needs be moved in love.^ This 
truth does he make plain to my intelligence, 
who demonstrates to me the first love of all the 
sempiternal substances.^ The voice of the true 
Author makes it plain who, speaking of Him- 

2. V. 16. «* I am Alpha and Omega, the beginning and 
the ending, saith the Lord.*' Revelation i. 8. 

3. V. 36. The argument is : Whatever is good kindles 
love for itself; the greater the good the greater the love ; God 
is the supreme good and therefore the chief object of love. 

4. V. 39. Aristotle is meant, v^rho taught that the eternal 
and unmoved First Cause is the source of the motion of the 
heavens, "the sempiternal substances," by their desire for it. 

vv. 42-6o] CANTO XXVI 203 

self, says to Moses : ' I will make thee see all 
goodness.' ^ Thou, too, makest it plain to me, 
beginning the lofty announcement which below 
on earth, above all other trump, proclaims the 
secret of this place on high." ^ And I heard : 
" By human understanding, and by authorities 
concordant with it,^ thy sovran love looks unto 
God ; but say, further, if thou feelest other 
cords draw thee towards Him, so that thou 
mayst declare with how many teeth this love 
doth bite thee." 

The holy intention of the Eagle of Christ 
was not latent to me ; nay, rather I perceived 
whither he wished to lead my profession ; there- 
fore, I began again : " All those bitings which 
can make the heart turn to God have been con- 
current unto my love ; for the existence of the 
world, and my own existence, the death which 
He endured that I may live, and that which all 
the faithful hope even as I do, together with the 

5. V. 42, ** I will make all my goodness pass before 
thee." Exodus xxxiii. 19. 

6. V. 45. ** I am Alpha and Omega, the beginning and 
the ending, saith the Lord, which is, and which was, and 
which is to come, the Almighty." These words of the 
eighth verse of the first chapter of Revelation are perhaps 
those to which Dante here refers. The Almighty, the 
source of all good, is of necessity the chief object of love. 

7. V. 47. By reason of philosophic arguments, and of 
the authority of the Holy Scriptures. 

204 PARADISE [vv. 61-84 

aforesaid living consciousness/ have drawn me 
from the sea of perverted love, and have set 
me on the shore of the right. The leaves, 
wherewith all the garden of the Eternal Gar- 
dener is enleaved, 1 love in measure of the 
good borne unto them from Him." 

Soon as I was silent a most sweet song re- 
sounded through the heavens, and my Lady- 
said with the others : " Holy, Holy, Holy." 

And as at a keen light sleep is broken by the 
spirit of sight, which runs to the splendor that 
goes from coat to coat,^ and he who awakes 
shrinks from what he sees, so ignorant is his 
sudden wakening, until his judgment comes 
to his aid ; '° thus Beatrice chased away every 
mote from my eyes with the radiance of her 
own, which were refulgent more than a thousand 
miles ; so that I then saw better than before ; 
and, as one amazed, I asked concerning a fourth 
light which I saw with us. And my Lady: 
"Within those rays the first soul which the 
First Power ever created gazes with joy upon 
its Maker." 

8. V. 61. That God is the supreme good, and therefore 
the supreme object of love. 

9. V. 72. The spirit of the sight runs to meet the light 
which flashes through the successive coats of the eye. 

10. V. 74. Waked of a sudden he knov^s not at first 
what has awaked him. 

vv. 85-108] CANTO XXVI 205 

As the bough which bends its top at passing 
of the wind, and then uplifts itself by its own 
virtue which raises it, so did I, in amazement, 
while she was speaking ; and then a desire to 
speak, wherewith I was burning, gave me again 
assurance, and I began : " O fruit, that wast 
alone produced mature, O ancient Father, to 
whom every bride is daughter and daughter- 
in-law, devoutly as I can, I supplicate thee 
that thou speak to me ; thou seest my wish, 
and that I may hear thee speedily, I do not 
tell it." 

Sometimes an animal, when covered up, so 
stirs, that its impulse must needs be apparent 
because of the corresponding movement which 
its wrapping makes ; and in like manner the 
first soul made evident to me, through its cov- 
ering, how gladly it came to do me pleasure. 
Then it breathed forth : " Without its being 
uttered to me by thee, I better discern thy wish, 
than thou whatever thing is most certain to thee ; 
because I see it in the truthful Mirror which 
makes of Itself a reflection of other things, while 
nothing makes of itself a reflection of It." Thou 

II. V. 108. All things are seen in God as if reflected 
in a mirror, the image of them is in Him ; but nothing can 
reflect an image of God. ** In the eternal Idea, as in a glass, 
the works of God arc more perfectly seen than in themselves. 
. . . But it is impossible for a thing created to represent that 

2o6 PARADISE [vv. 109-134 

wouldst hear how long it is since God placed 
me in the lofty garden where this Lady made 
thee ready for so long a stairway ; and how long 
it was a delight to my eyes ; and the proper cause 
of the great wrath ; and of the idiom which I used 
and which I made. Now, my son, the tasting 
of the tree was not by itself the cause of so great 
an exile, but only the overpassing of the bound. 
In that place whence thy Lady moved Virgil, 
I longed for this assembly during four thousand 
three hundred and two revolutions of the sun ; 
and while I was on earth I saw him return to 
all the lights of his path " nine hundred and 
thirty times. The tongue which I spoke was 
all extinct long before the people of Nimrod j 
attempted their unaccomplishable work; for 
never was any product of the reason durable 
for ever, because of human liking, which alters, 
following the heavens.'^ That man speaks is 
work of nature ; but, thus or thus, nature then 
leaves to you to do according as it pleases you. 
Before I descended to the infernal anguish, the 
Supreme Good, whence comes the gladness that 

which is increated.'* John Norton, The Orthodox Evangel- 
ist, 1654, p. 332. 

12. V. 122. In his course through the Zodiac. 

13. V. 129. Speech, a product of human reason, changes 
according to the pleasure of man, which alters from time to 
time under the influence of the heavens. 

vv. 135-142] CANTO XXVI 207 

swathes me, was on earth called /; afterwards 
it was called El ; '^ and that must needs be/^ for 
the custom of mortals is as a leaf on a branch, 
which goes away and another comes. On the 
mountain which rises highest from the wave I 
was, with pure life and sinful, from the first 
hour to that which follows the sixth, when the 
sun changes quadrant." '^ 

14. V. 136. /is here to be pronounced jah, and the 
meaning is, that God was known in the primitive language 
by a letter corresponding to the Hebrew letter Jod, the initial 
of the name Jah : *' Sing unto God . . . extol Him ... by 
his name jfah.^^ Psalm Ixviii. 4. 

15. V. 136. Such change in the name was inevitable, 
because of the changing customs of thought and speech. 

16. V. 142. Adam's stay in the Earthly Paradise, on the 
summit of the mount of Purgatory, was thus a httle more than 
six hours ; the sun changes quadrant, that is, completes his 
course through the fourth part of a circle, with every six hours. 


Denunciation by St. Peter of his degenerate successors, 
— Dante gazes upon the Earth, — Ascent of Beatrice 
and Dante to the Crystalline Heaven. — Its nature. — 
Beatrice rebukes the covetousness of mortals. 

" To the Father, to the Son, and to the Holy 
Spirit be glory," all Paradise began, so that the 
sweet song was inebriating me. That which I 
was seeing seemed to me a smile of the uni- 
verse ; for my inebriation was entering through 
the hearing and through the sight. O joy ! O 
ineffable gladness ! O life entire of love and 
of peace ! O riches secure, without longing ! ' 

Before my eyes the four torches were stand- 
ing enkindled, and that which had come first 
began to make itself more vivid, and in its sem- 
blance became such as Jupiter would become, 
if he and Mars were birds, and should ex- 
change plumage.^ The Providence which here 
assigns turn and office, had imposed silence on 
the blessed choir on every side, when I heard : 

1. V. 9. Which leave nothing for desire. 

2. V. 15. The pure white light becoming red, as if the 
planet Jupiter were to change color with Mars. 

vv. 19-45] CANTO XXVII 209 

" If I change color, marvel not ; for, as I speak, 
thou shalt see all these change color. He who 
on earth usurps my place, my place, my place, 
which is vacant in the presence of the Son of 
God, ^ has made of my cemetery a sewer of 
blood and of filth, wherewith the Perverse One 
who fell from here above, below there is pla- 

With that color which, by reason of the op- 
posite sun, paints the cloud at evening and at 
morning, I then saw the whole Heaven over- 
spread. And as a modest lady who abides sure 
of herself, and at the fault of another, on only 
hearing of it, becomes timid, thus did Beatrice 
change semblance ; and such eclipse, I believe, 
there was in heaven when the Supreme Power 

Then his words proceeded, in a voice so trans- 
muted from itself that his countenance was not 
more changed : " The Bride of Christ was not 
nurtured on my blood, and that of Linus and of 
Cletus, to be employed for acquist of gold ; but 
for acquist of this glad life Sixtus and Pius and 
Calixtus and Urban ^ shed their blood after 

3. V. 24. Dante held that Boniface VIII. had no right 
to the Papal throne, because his election to it lacked validity, 
having taken place while Celestine V., his predecessor, was 
still alive, and having been secured by bribery and deception. 

4. v. 44. Early Popes, martyred for the faith. 

210 PARADISE [vv. 46-68 

much weeping. It was not our intention that 
part of the Christian people should sit on the 
right hand of our successors, and part on the 
other ; nor that the keys which were entrusted 
to me should become a device upon a banner 
which should fight against the baptized ; ^ nor 
that I should be made a figure on a seal to venal 
and mendacious privileges, whereat I often red- 
den and flash. Rapacious wolves, in garb of 
shepherd, are seen from here on high over all the 
pastures : O defence of God, why dost thou yet 
lie still ! To drink our blood Cahorsines and 
Gascons are making ready ; ^ O good begin- 
ning, to what vile end must thou fall ! But 
the high Providence, which with Scipio defended 
for Rome the glory of the world, will succor 
speedily, as I conceive. And thou, son, who 
because of thy mortal weight wilt again return 
below, open thy mouth, and conceal not that 
which I conceal not." 

Even as our air snows down flakes of frozen 
vapors, when the horn of the Goat of heaven 

5. V. 51. A reference to the war which Boniface VIII. 
waged against the Colonna family. See Inferno , Canto xxvii. 

6. V. 59. John XXII., Pope from 13 16 to 1334, was 
a native of Cahors ; his immediate predecessor, Clement V., 
1305— 1 3 14, was a Gascon. The passage is interesting as 
showing that this portion of the poem was in hand during 
the last years of Dante's life. 

vv.69-82] CANTO XXVII 211 

is touched by the sun/ so I saw the aether 
become adorned, and flaked upward with the tri- 
umphant vapors which had made sojourn there 
with us.^ My sight was following their sem- 
blances, and followed, till the intermediate space 
by its vastness took from it the power of pass- 
ing farther onward. Whereon my Lady, who 
saw me freed from gazing upward, said to me : 
" Cast down thy sight, and look how thou hast 

I saw that, since the hour when I had first 
looked, I had moved through the whole arc 
which the first climate makes from its middle 
to its end ; "^ so that beyond Cadiz I saw the 

7. V. 69. In midwinter, when the sun is in Capricorn. 

8. V. 72. As in winter the flakes of snow descend, so 
now the host of triumphant souls rise upward to the higher 
heaven, like flakes of flame. 

9. V. 81. The old geographers divided the earth into 
seven zones, called climates, by circles parallel to the equator. 
The first climate extended twenty degrees to the north of the 
equator. The sign of the Gemini, in which Dante was re- 
volving in the Heaven of the Fixed Stars, is in the zone of the 
Heavens corresponding to the first climate, and from his first 
look downward from the Heavens (see Canto xxii. 133— i 53) 
to the present moment, he had, he says, moved over the arc 
which the first climate describes from its middle to its end. 

As each climate extended on the habitable hemisphere for 
one hundred and eighty degrees, the arc from its middle to its 
end would be of ninety degrees, a distance supposed to be 
comprised between Jerusalem and Cadiz, and the time required 

212 PARADISE [vv. 83-99 

mad track of Ulysses, and on the other side 
almost the shore '° on which Europa became a 
sweet burden. And more of the site of this little 
threshing-floor would have been discovered to 
me, but the sun was proceeding beneath my feet, 
a sign and more removed." 

My enamoured mind, that ever pays court 
to my Lady, was more than ever burning to 
bring back my eyes to her. And if nature 
or art has made bait in human flesh or in 
paintings of it, to catch the eyes in order to 
possess the mind, all united would seem naught 
compared to the divine pleasure which shone 
upon me when I turned me to her smiling face. 
And the virtue which that look vouchsafed to 
me, tore me from the fair nest of Leda," and 
impelled me to the swiftest heaven. '^ 

for passing through it would be six hours, one fourth of the 
diurnal revolution of the Heavens. 

10. V. 83. On the one side, to the West, Dante saw 
the ocean, — the mad track of Ulysses ; on the other side 
almost the coast of Phoenicia, whence Europa was carried off 
by Jupiter. 

11. V. 87. The sun in Aries, being separated by Taurus 
from Gemini, was some three hours in advance to the West, 
and therefore the extreme eastern part of the hemisphere of 
the earth as seen from Gemini was not illuminated by it, so 
that the coast of Phoenicia and the region beyond it were in 
the shadow of night. 

12. v. 98. From Gemini, the constellation of Castor and 
Pollux, the twin sons of Leda. 

13. V. 99. The Primum Mobile, or Crystalline Heaven. 

vv. 100-117] CANTO XXVII 213 

Its parts, most living and lofty, are so uni- 
form that I cannot tell which of them Beatrice 
chose for a place for me. But she, who saw 
my desire, began, smiling so glad that God 
seemed to rejoice in her countenance : " The 
nature of the universe which holds the centre 
quiet, and moves all the rest around it, begins 
here as from its starting-point."^ And this 
heaven has no other Where than the Divine 
Mind, wherein is kindled the love that revolves 
it, and the virtue which it rains down. Light 
and love enclose it with one circle, even as it 
does the others, and of that cincture He who 
girds it is the sole Intelligence.'^ The motion 
of this heaven is not marked out by another, 
but the others are measured by this, just as ten 
by its half and by its fifth. '^ And how time can 

14. V. 108. The properties inherent in the universe, 
by virtue of which its centre, the earth, is immovable while all 
the rest of the material creation revolves around it, have their 
origin here. 

15. V. 114. The Angelic Intelligences are the agents 
who move the lower Heavens, but over the Empyrean, the 
cincture of light and love by which the First Moving Hea- 
ven is enclosed, God himself immediately presides. 

16. V. 1 17. The fixed unit of time is the day, which 
is established by the revolution of the Crystalline Heaven, 
the swiftest of all. It determines the slower motions of the 
Heavens below it, and fixes their proportionate measure. 
The verse ** as ten by the half and the fifth " seems reversed 
as an illustration. 

214 PARADISE [vv. 118-139 

have its roots in such a flower-pot, and in the 
others its leaves, may now be manifest to thee. 
" O covetousness/7 which dost so whelm 
mortals beneath thee, that no one has power to 
withdraw his eyes from out thy waves ! Well 
does the will blossom in men, but the contin- 
ual rain converts the true plums into blighted 
fruit. Faith and innocence are found only in 
children ; then each flies away before the cheeks 
are covered. One, so long as he lisps, keeps 
the fasts, who afterward, when his tongue is 
loosed, devours whatever food under what- 
ever moon ; and one, while he lisps, loves his 
mother and listens to her, who afterward, when 
his speech is perfect, desires to see her buried. 
So the skin of the fair daughter of him who 
brings morning and leaves evening, white in its 
first aspect, becomes black.'^ Do thou, in order 

17. V. 121. The connection of the preceding ideas with 
this denunciation of covetousness, or selfishness, is not at first 
apparent. But the transition is not unnatural, from the con- 
sideration of the Heaven which pours down Divine influence, 
to the thought of the engrossment of men in the pursuit of 
their selfish and transitory ends, in which they are blinded to 
heavenly and eternal good. 

18. V. 1 3 8 . By ' the fair daughter of the sun ' Dante 
seems to mean * human nature,' probably having in mind a 
saying of Aristotle, which he cites in De Monarchia, i. ix., 
where he says, <*The human race is the child of heaven . . . 
for man and the sun beget man according to [Aristotle, 

vv. 140-148] CANTO XXVII 215 

that thou make no marvel of It, reflect that on 
earth there is no one who governs ; wherefore 
the human family goes thus astray. But ere 
January be all un-wintered by that hundredth 
part which is down there neglected/^ these su- 
pernal circles shall so roar that the storm which 
has been so long awaited shall turn round the 
sterns to where the prows are, so that the fleet 
shall run straight, and true fruit shall come after 
the flower." ^"^ 

Phys. ii. 2]." The meaning is that the nature of man, fair 
in infancy, degenerates as life goes on. 

19. V. 143. Before January falls in spring, owing to the 
error in the calendar, by which the year was lengthened by 
about a day in each century. It is as if the poet said : 
Before a thousand years shall pass ; meaning : Within short 
while. The error was not corrected till 1582, when the 
reformed calendar was established by Pope Gregory XIII. 

20. V. 148. This last verse is a recurrence to the image 
in vv. 125, 126. 


The Heavenly Hierarchy 

After she who imparadises my mind had 
disclosed the truth counter to the present life 
of wretched mortals ; as one who sees in a mir- 
ror the flame of a torch which is lighted behind 
him, ere he has it in sight or in thought, and 
turns round to see if the glass tell him the 
truth, and sees that it accords with it as the 
note with its measure ; ' so my memory recol- 
lects that I did, looking into the beautiful eyes, 
wherewith Love made the cord to capture me.^ 
And when I turned, and mine were touched 
by what is apparent in that sphere whenever 
one gazes fixedly on its circling,^ I saw a Point 

1. V. 9. As the notes of the song with the metre of the 

2. V. 12. The eyes of Beatrice reflected, as a mirror, 
the light which shone from God, and Dante, seeing the reflec- 
tion, turns to gaze on the Light itself. 

3 . V. 1 5 . The word translated by ' sphere ' is volume, 
Dante uses this word nine times in the Divine Comedy ; in 
six instances it has the meaning of * volume ' in its simple 
sense; once. Paradise, xxvi. 119, it means 'revolutions,' 

vv. 16-36] CANTO XXVIII 217 

which was raying out light so keen that the 
sight on which it blazes must needs close be- 
cause of its intense keenness/ And whatever 
star seems smallest from here ^ would seem a 
moon if placed beside it, as star with star is 
placed. Perhaps as near as a halo seems to 
girdle the light which paints it, when the vapor 
that bears it is most dense, at such distance 
around the Point a circle of fire was whirling 
so rapidly that it would have surpassed that 
motion which most swiftly girds the world ; 
and this was girt around by another, and that 
by the third, and the third then by the fourth, by 
the fifth the fourth, and then by the sixth the 
fifth. Thereon the seventh followed, so wide- 
spread now in compass that the messenger of 
Juno entire ^ would be narrow to contain it. So 
the eighth and the ninth ; and each was moving 
more slowly, according as it was in number 
more distant from the unit.^ And that one had 

once. Paradise, xxiii. 112, it is equivalent to * revolving 
spheres.' Here it signifies the Crystalline Heaven, the Pri- 
mum Mobile, which in its revolution displays the light and 
love that enclose it. 

4. V. I 8. This Point is the Glory of God, and the type, 
in its indivisibihty, of the Unity of the Godhead. 

5. v. 19. From here on earth. 

6. V. 32. The complete circle of Iris, the rainbow. 

7. V. 36. These circles of fire are the nine Orders of 
the Angels. 

2i8 PARADISE [vv. 37-61 , 

the clearest flame from which the Pure Spark ' 
was least distant ; I believe because it partakes 
more of Its truth. 

My Lady, who saw me deeply suspense in j 
heed, said : " On that Point Heaven and all " 
nature are dependent. Look on that circle 
which is most conjoined to It, and know that | 
its motion is so swift because of the burning 
love whereby it is spurred." And I to her: 
" If the world were disposed in the order which 
I see in those wheels, that which is set before 
me would have satisfied me ; but in the world 
of sense the revolutions may be seen so much 
the more divine as they are more remote from | 
the centre.^ Wherefore if my desire is to have 
end in this marvellous and angelic temple, which 
has for confine only love and light, I need yet 
to hear why the example and the exemplar go 
not in one fashion, because by myself I con- 
template this in vain." ^ " If thy fingers are 
insufficient for such a knot, it is no wonder, so 
hard has it become through not being tried." 
Thus my Lady ; then she said : " Take that 

8. V. 51. The spheres of the created universe partake 
more of the divine nature, and move more sw^iftly, the more 
distant they are from the earth, their centre ; but these circles 
of fire in the Empyrean show a reverse condition. 

9. V. 57. The angelic circles are the example, or pattern; 
the spheres of the material universe are the exemplar, or copy. 

vv. 62-8i] CANTO XXVIII 219 

which I shall tell thee, if thou wouldest be satis- 
fied, and sharpen thy wit about it. The cor- 
poreal circles are wide or narrow according to 
the more or less of virtue which is diffused 
through all their parts. Greater goodness must 
work greater weal ; the greater body, if it has 
its parts equally complete, contains the greater 
weal.'° Hence this one, which sweeps along 
with itself all the rest of the universe, corre- 
sponds to the circle which loves most, and 
knows most." Therefore, if thou draw thy 
measure round the virtue, not round the appear- 
ance of the beings which seem circular to thee, 
thou wilt see in each heaven a marvellous agree- 
ment with its Intelligence, of greater to more 
and of smaller to less." '^ 

As the hemisphere of the air remains splen- 
did and serene when Boreas blows from that 
cheek wherewith he is mildest,'^ whereby the 

10. V. 69. In this sentence 'goodness* corresponds 
with the ** virtue" of the preceding sentence. The greater 
body, if it be perfect in its parts, possesses greater virtue than 
the smaller, and consequently works more salutary influence. 

11. V. 72. The ninth sphere, the greatest of all, corre- 
sponds in its superior virtue with the first and innermost circle 
of the angelic hierarchy, that of the Seraphim. 

12. V. 78. Each sphere of the material heavens in pro- 
portion to its size corresponds to each circle of the angelic In- 
telligences in proportion to the nearness of the latter to God. 

13. V. 81. When Boreas blows the north wind more 

220 PARADISE [vv. 82-98 

mist which before troubled it is cleared and dis- 
solved, so that the heaven smiles to us with the 
beauties of its every region, so I became after 
my Lady had provided me with her clear an- 
swer, and, like a star in heaven, the truth was 

And after her words had stopped, not other- 
wise does molten iron throw out sparks than 
the circles sparkled. Every scintillation fol- 
lowed its blaze,'^ and they were so many that 
their number was of more thousands than the 
doubling of the chess. '^ I heard Hosannah 
sung from choir to choir to the fixed Point that 
holds them, and will forever hold them, at the 
Ubi^^ in which they have ever been. And she, 
who saw the questioning thoughts within my 
mind,'^ said : " The first circles have shown to 

from the east than from the west. The north-east wind was 
held to clear the sky of clouds. 

14. V. 91. The innumerable sparks each kept to its 
flaming circle, revolving with it. 

^5" V' 93* ^^^ doubling of the chess alludes to the 
story that the inventor of the game asked, as his reward from 
the King of Persia, a grain of wheat for the first square of the 
board, two for the second, four for the third, and so on with 
successive duplication to the last or sixty-fourth square. The 
number reached by this process extends to twenty figures, 

16. V. 95. TYiQ where, the appointed place. 

17. V. 98. The questioning thoughts of Dante were in 
regard to the arrangement of the Orders of the Heavenly 

vv. 99-ih] canto XXVIII 221 

thee the Seraphim and the Cherubim. Thus 
swiftly they follow their own bonds/^ in order 
to liken themselves to the Point as most they 
can, and they can in proportion as they are ex- 
alted to see. Those other loves, which go 
around them, are called Thrones of the divine 
aspect, because they terminated the first triad.'^ 
And thou shouldst know that all have delight 
in proportion as their vision penetrates into the 
Truth in which every understanding is at rest. 
Hence may be seen how beatitude is founded 
on the act which sees, not on that which loves, 
which follows after. And the merit, to which 
grace and good-will give birth, is the measure 
of this seeing ; thus is the progress from grade 
to grade. 

Hierarchy, which Beatrice now proceeds to declare to him, 
following in her account the teaching of the treatise Concern- 
ing the Heavenly Hierarchyy which was generally ascribed 
during the Middle Ages to Dionysius the Areopagite (see 
jicts xvii. 34) to whom, it was believed, St. Paul communi- 
cated the knowledge concerning heavenly things which he had 
gained when caught up to Heaven ; see 2 Cor. xii. 2—4. 

18. v. 100. The course of their respective circles to 
which they are bound. 

19. V. 105. Called Thrones of the divine aspect, be- 
cause at the Creation God completed the first ternary of the 
Angelic host with them, constitudng them the mirrors whence 
his judgments shine upon the world below. See Canto ix. 

222 PARADISE [vv. 115-139 

" The next triad, that in like manner bour- 
geons in this sempiternal spring which the 
nightly Aries despoils not/° perpetually sing 
Hosannah with three melodies, which sound 
in the three orders of joy wherewith it is three- 
fold. In this hierarchy are the three divinities, 
first Dominations, and then Virtues ; the third 
order is of Powers. Then, in the two penul- 
timate dances, the Principalities and Archan- 
gels circle ; the last is wholly of Angelic sports. 
These orders all gaze upward, and downward so 
prevail, that toward God all are drawn, and all 
draw. And Dionysius with such great desire 
set himself to contemplate these orders, that he 
named and divided them, as I. But Gregory ^' 
afterward separated from him ; wherefore, so 
soon as he opened his eyes in this Heaven, he 
smiled at himself. And if a mortal declared on 
earth so much of secret truth, I would not have 
thee wonder, for he who saw it here on high 
disclosed it to him, with much else of the truth 
of these circles." 

20. V. 1 1 7. At the autumnal equinox, tlie time of frosts, 
Aries - — the Ram — is the sign in which the night rises. 

21. V. 133. The Pope, St. Gregory, who differs slightly 
fi-om Dionysius in his arrangement of the Orders of the Hea- 
venly host. 


Discourse of Beatrice concerning the creation and nature 
of the Angels. — She reproves the presumption and foolish- 
ness of preachers. 

When the two children of Latona, covered 
by the Ram and by the Scales, both at one mo- 
ment make a zone of the horizon, as long as 
from the instant the zenith holds them in bal- 
ance, till one and the other, changing their 
hemisphere, are unbalanced from that girdle,' 
so long, with her countenance painted with a 
smile, was Beatrice silent, looking fixedly upon 
the Point which had overcome me. Then she 
began : " I tell, not ask, what thou wishest 
to hear, for I have seen it where every where 
and every when are centred. Not for the gain 
of good unto Himself, which cannot be, but 
that His splendor might, in resplendence, say, 

I. V. 6. When at the spring equinox, the sun (Apollo) 
being in the sign of Aries or the Ram, and the moon (Diana) 
in that of Libra or the Scales, are opposite to each other on the 
horizon, the one just rising and the other setting, they seem 
as if held for a moment in a balance which hangs from the 

224 PARADISE [vv. 15-34 

I am ;'' in His own eternity, outside of time-out- 
side of every other limit, as it pleased Him, the 
Eternal Love disclosed Himself in new loves. 
Nor before, as if inert, did He lie ; for neither 
before nor after ^ did the moving of God upon 
these waters proceed. Form and matter, con- 
joined and simple, came into being which had 
no defect, as three arrows from a three-stringed 
bow ; and as in glass, in amber, or in crystal a 
ray shines so that there is no interval between 
its coming and its being complete, so did the 
triform effect ^ ray forth from its Lord into its 
being all at once, without distinction of begin- 
ning. Order was concreate and established for 
the substances ; and those in which pure act was 
produced were top of the world.^ Pure poten- 
tiality held the lowest part ; ^ in the middle such 

2. V. I 5. His glory resplendent in the created universe, 
reflecting Himself, declares : Subsisto, '* I am." 

3. V. 20. See Genesis i. 2. In eternity there is no be- 
fore or after ; time had no existence till the creation, and 
has relevancy only to created things. 

4. V. 28. Pure form, pure matter, and form conjoined 
with matter. 

5. V. 33. The substances in which pure act was pro- 
duced were the angels, created of pure form. S. T. i. 50. i. 
They were of pure act because of their pure form, '* for in 
the very instant in which form is acquired the thing begins to 
operate according to its form." S. T. ii^. 113. 6. 

6. V. 34. Pure potentiality is matter pure and simple, 
not diiferentiated by form. 

vv. 35-51] CANTO XXIX 225 

a bond tied up potentiality with act, that it is 
never unbound.^ Jerome wrote for you of the 
Angels, as being created a long tract of cen- 
turies before the rest of the world was made ; 
but this truth ^ is written on many pages by the 
writers of the Holy Spirit, and thou wilt thy- 
self discern it there, if thou watchest well for 
it ; and also the reason sees it somewhat, which 
would not admit that the motors could be so 
long without their perfection.^ Now thou 
knowest where and when these Loves were 
created, and how ; so that three flames of thy 
desire are already quenched. 

" One would not reach to twenty, in count- 
ing, so quickly as a part of the Angels disturbed 
the lowest of your elements. '° The rest re- 

7. V. 36. Potency and act are united in the objects of 
the material creation in which matter and form are con- 

8. V. 40. * This truth/ namely (the truth here set forth, 
contrary to Jerome's assertion) that the creation of the Angels 
was contemporaneous with that of the rest of the Universe of 
which they were the Intelligences. St. Jerome's opinion is 
to be found in his comment on the Epistle of Paul to Titus. 
It is discussed and rejected by St. Thomas Aquinas, S. T. 
i. 61. 3. 

9. V. 45. Without scope for their acdon as movers of 
the spheres, by which they fulfilled the object of their exist- 

10. V. 5 1 . Instantly on their creation a part of the 
Angels rebelled, and were cast from Heaven to Hell in 

226 PARADISE [vv. 52-74 

mained and began this art which thou behold- 
est, with such great delight that they never cease 
from circHng. The origin of the fall was the 
accursed pride of him whom thou hast seen 
opprest by all the weights of the world. Those 
whom thou seest here were modest to recognize 
themselves as from the Goodness which had 
made them apt for intelligence so great ; " 
wherefore their vision was exalted by illumi- 
nating grace and by their merit, so that they 
have a full and steadfast will. And I would not 
that thou doubt, but be certain, that to receive 
grace is meritorious in proportion as the affec- 
tion is open to it. 

" Henceforth, if my words have been har- 
vested, thou canst contemplate much in regard 
to this consistory without other assistance. But 
since on earth it is taught in your schools 
that the angelic nature is such that it under- 
stands, and remembers, and wills, I will speak 
further, in order that thou mayest see the sim- 
ple truth, which there below is confused, by the 

the body of the earth. Dante calls the earth the ' substratum 
of the elements,' that is, the nethermost of them, lying 
below the water, the air and the fire. See Hell, xxxiv. 

II. V. 60. The good angels were modest in recogniz- 
ing that their existence proceeded from God, who had made 
them capable of understanding the significance of their own 

vv. 75-92] CANTO XXIX 227 

equivocation in such like teaching. These sub- 
stances, since first they were gladdened by the 
face of God, have not turned their sight from 
it, from which nothing is concealed ; therefore 
they have not a vision interrupted by new ob- 
jects, and therefore do not need to remember 
by a divided conception.''' So that down there 
men dream when not asleep, believing and not 
believing to speak truth ; but in the one is 
more fault and more shame.'^ Ye below go not 
along one path in philosophizing ; so much do 
the love of display and the thought of it trans- 
port you ; and yet this is endured here on high 
with less indignation than when the divine 
Scripture is set aside, or when it is perverted. 
Men think not there how much blood it costs 
to sow it in the world, or how much he pleases 

12. V. 8 1 . The angels, looking always upon God, to 
whom all things are present, have no need of memory, with 
what Dante calls its ** divided conception." This phrase, 
** divided conception," is peculiar, and of uncertain meaning. 
It may perhaps be the equivalent of the modern term * ab- 
stract concept.' The concepts of memory are divided or ab- 
stracted from the impression made by the direct vision of the 
object remembered. 

13. v. 84. Many of the doctrines of men on earth are 
like dreams, because they have no foundation in truth ; and 
while some honestly believe in them, there are others, who, 
though not believing, are guilty of teaching these doctrines as 

228 PARADISE [vv. 93-120 

who humbly keeps close to it. Every one 
strives for display, and makes his own inven- 
tions, and those are treated of by the preach- 
ers, and the Gospel is silent. One says that 
the moon turned back at the passion of Christ 
and interposed herself, so that the light of the 
sun reached not down ; and others that the 
light hid itself of its own accord, so that this 
eclipse answered for the Spaniards and for the 
Indians as well as for the Jews. Florence has 
not so many Lapi and Bindi '* as fables such 
as these that are shouted the year long from 
the pulpits, on every side ; so that the poor 
flocks, who know naught, return from the pas- 
ture fed with wind; and not seeing the harm 
does not excuse them. Christ did not say to 
his first company : ' Go, and preach idle stories 
to the world,' but he gave to them the true foun- 
dation ; and that alone sounded in their mouths, 
so that to fight for kindling of the faith they 
made shield and lance of the Gospel. Now 
men go forth to preach with jests and with 
buffooneries, and so there be only a good laugh 
the cowl puffs up, and nothing more is asked ; 
but such a bird is nesting in the tail of the 
hood, that if the crowd should see it, they 
would see in what pardoning they are trust- 

14. V. 103. Common nicknames in Florence ; Lapo is 
derived from Jacopo, Bindo from Ildebrando. 

vv. 121-133] CANTO XXIX 229 

ing ; wherefore '^ such great folly has grown on 
earth, that, without proof of any testimony, men 
would flock to every promise. On this the 
pig of St. Antony fattens,'^ and others also, who 
are far more pigs, paying with money that has 
no stamp of coinage. 

" But because we have digressed enough, turn 
back thine eyes now toward the straight path, 
so that the way be shortened with the time.'^ 
This nature '^ so exceedingly extends in number, 
that never was there speech or mortal concept 
that can go so far. And if thou consider that 
which is revealed by Daniel thou wilt see that 

15. V. 121. By this evil preaching men are rendered so 
credulous that they put faith in any sort of indulgence. 

16. V. 124. St. Antony of Egypt, the Patriarch of 
Monks, ** whose example and instructions," says Alban 
Butler, ** have been the most perfect rule for the monastic 
life in all succeeding ages," is represented with a hog under 
his feet, as a symbol of his mastery of sensual temptations. 
The monks of his Order kept herds of pigs, which were 
allowed to feed at public charge, and which it was a profana- 
tion to steal or kill. Dante gives the name of pigs to his 
degenerate followers, many of whom were among the worst 
of the mendicant preachers and pardoners of the Middle Ages, 
who grew fat on the sale of false indulgences. 

17. v. 129. That what remains to say may be propor- 
tioned to the short time that there is for stay in this sphere. 

18. v. 130. The Angelic nature. ** The angels are of 
a multitude which exceeds every material multitude." S. T. 
i. 50. 3. 

230 PARADISE [vv. 134-145 

in his thousands '^ a determinate number is con- 
cealed. The Primal Light that irradiates it all 
is received in it by as many modes as are the 
splendors with which It pairs Itself.^° Where- 
fore, since the affection follows upon the act that 
conceives/' in this nature the sweetness of love 
diversely glows and warms. Behold now the 
height and the breadth of the Eternal Good- 
ness, since it has made for itself so many mir- 
rors on which it is broken. One in itself remain- 
ing as before." 

19. V. 134. "Thousand thousands ministered unto 
him, and ten thousand times ten thousand stood before him." 
Daniel v^. 10. 

20. V. 130. No two angels are of the same species. 
Each receives the Primal Light in its own individual measure. 

21. V. 139. Since love follows on knowledge through 


Ascent to the Empyrean, — The River of Light. — 
The celestial Rose. — The seat of Henry VII. — The 
last words of Beatrice. 

The sixth hour is glowing perhaps six thou- 
sand miles distant from us, and this world now 
inclines its shadow almost to a level bed, when 
the mid heaven, deep above us, begins to become 
such that some one star loses its show so far as to 
this depth ; ' and as the brightest handmaid of 
the sun comes farther on, so the heaven is closed 
from light to light, even to the most beautiful. 
Not otherwise the Triumph, that plays forever 
round the Point which vanquished me, seeming 
enclosed by that which it encloses, was extin- 
guished little by little to my sight ; ^ wherefore 
my seeing nothing and my love constrained me 

1. V. 6. When it is noon, — the sixth hour, — six thou- 
sand miles away from us to the east, it is about daybreak 
where we are ; the shadow of the earth lies in the plane of 
vision, and with the growing light the stars one after another 
become invisible at this depth, that is, to one on earth. 

2. V. 13. Losing itself in the light which streams from 
the Divine point. 

232 PARADISE [vv. 15-42 

to turn with my eyes to Beatrice. If what has 
been said of her so far as here were all included 
in a single praise, it would be little to furnish 
forth this turn. The beauty which I saw tran- 
scends measure not only beyond our reach, but 
surely I believe that its Maker alone can enjoy 
it all. 

By this pass I concede myself vanquished 
more than ever comic or tragic poet was over- 
come by crisis of his theme. For as the sun 
does to the sight which trembles most, even so 
remembrance of the sweet smile deprives my 
memory of its very self. From the first day 
when in this life I saw her face, until this sight, 
the following with my song has not been cut 
off for me, but now needs must my pursuit 
desist from further following her beauty in my 
verse, as at his utmost every artist. 

Such, as I leave her for a greater heralding 
than that of my trumpet, which is bringing its 
arduous theme to a close, with act and voice of 
a leader whose talk is accomplished she began 
again : " We have issued forth from the great- 
est body to the Heaven ^ which is pure light : 
light intellectual full of love, love of true good 
full of joy, joy which transcends every sweet- 

3. V. 39. From the Primum Mobile, the Crystalline 
Heaven, the greatest of the material spheres of the universe, 
to the Empyrean. 

vv. 43-66] CANTOXXX 233 

ness. Here thou shalt see the one and the 
other soldiery of Paradise ; and the one in 
those aspects which thou shalt see at the Last 
Judgment/* ^ 

As a sudden flash which scatters the spirits 
of the sight so that it deprives the eye of the 
action of the strongest objects,^ so did a vivid 
light shine round about me, leaving me swathed 
with such a veil of its own effulgence that 
nothing was visible to me. 

" The Love which quieteth this Heaven 
always welcomes to itself with such a salutation, 
in order to make the candle fit for its flame." 
No sooner had these brief words come within 
me than I comprehended that I was surmount- 
ing above my own power ; and I rekindled me 
with a new vision, such that no light is so pure 
that my eyes could not have withstood it. And 
I saw light in form of a river glowing with efful- 
gence, between two banks painted with marvel- 
lous spring. From this stream were issuing 
living sparks, and on every side were setting 
themselves in the flowers, like rubies which 

4. V. 45. The spirits of the redeemed who fought 
against the temptations of the world, and the good angels who 
fought against the rebellious ; and here the souls in bliss will 
be seen in their bodily shapes. 

5. V. 48. So that the clearest objects produce no effect 
upon the eye. 

234 PARADISE [vv. 67-91 

gold encompasses. Then, as if inebriated by 
the odors, they plunged again into the wonder- 
ful flood, and as one was entering another was 
issuing forth. 

" The high desire which now inflames and 
urges thee to have knowledge concerning that 
which thou seest, pleases me the more the more 
it swells; but thou must needs drink of this 
water before so great a thirst in thee be slaked.'* 
Thus the Sun of my eyes said to me; then 
added : " The stream, and the topazes which 
enter and issue, and the smiling of the herbage, 
are shadowy prefaces of their truth ; ^ not that 
these things are diflicult in themselves,^ but 
there is defect on thy part that thou hast not | 
yet vision so exalted." ' 

There is no babe who so hastily springs with 
face toward the milk, if he awake much later 
than his wont, as I did, to make yet better 
mirrors of my eyes, stooping to the wave which 
flows in order that we may be bettered in it. 
And even as the eaves of my eyelids drank of 
it, so it seemed to me from its length to have 
become round. Then as folk who have been 

6. V. 78. The stream, the sparks, the flowers are not 
such in reality as they seem to be ; they are but images fore- 
shadowing the truth. 

7. V. 79. The things themselves are not difficult to see, 
but thy eyes cannot yet see them as they actually are. 

vv. 92-122] CANTO XXX 235 

under masks, who seem other than before, if 
they divest themselves of the semblance not 
their own wherein they disappeared, in such wise 
for me the flowers and the sparks were changed 
into greater festival, so that I saw both the 
Courts of Heaven made manifest. 

O splendor of God, through which I saw the 
high triumph of the true kingdom, give to me 
power to tell how I saw it ! 

Light is thereabove which makes the Creator 
visible to that creature which has its peace only 
in seeing Him ; and it spreads in circular shape 
so far that its circumference would be too large 
a girdle for the sun. Its whole appearance 
is made of a ray reflected from the summit of 
the First Moving Heaven, which from it takes 
its life and potency. And as a hill mirrors itself 
in water at its base, as if to see itself adorned, 
when it is rich with verdure and with flowers, 
so, above the light, round and round about, 
on more than a thousand seats, I saw mirrored, 
as they rose, all that of us have made return 
on high. And if the lowest row gather within 
itself so great a light, how vast is the spread 
of this rose in its outermost leaves ! My 
sight lost not itself in the breadth and in the 
height, but took in all the quantity and the 
quality of that joy. There near and far nor 
add nor take away ; for where God governs 

236 PARADISE [vv. 123-144 

without intermediary the natural law is of no 

Into the yellow of the sempiternal rose, which 
spreads wide, rises in tiers, and breathes forth 
odor of praise unto the Sun that makes perpet- 
ual spring, Beatrice, like one who is silent and 
wishes to speak, drew me and said, " Behold, 
how vast is the convent of the white stoles ! ^ 
See our city, how wide its circuit ! See our 
benches so full that few people are now wanting 
here.^ On that great seat, on which thou bold- 
est thine eye because of the crown which already 
is set above it, ere thou dost sup at this wed- 
ding-feast, shall sit the soul (which on earth will 
be imperial) of the lofty Henry who, to set Italy 
straight, will come ere she is ready.'° The blind 
cupidity which bewitches you has made you like 
the little child who dies of hunger, and drives 
away his nurse ; and such a one will then be 
prefect in the divine forum that openly or cov- 
ertly he will not go with him along one road ; " 

8. V. 129. "He that overcometh, the same shall be 
clothed in white raiment." Revelation iii. 5. 

9. V. 132. "We are now in the last age of the world, 
and we are awaiting, truly, the consummation of the motion 
of the Heavens.'* ConvitOyii, 15, 115. 

10. V. 138. Henry V«II., elected Emperor 1308, 
crowned at Milan 1 3 1 1 , died 1 3 1 3 . 

11. V. 144. The Pope, Clement V., for a time osten- 
sibly supported Henry VII. in his Italian expedition, but 

vv. 145-148] CANTO XXX 237 

but short while thereafter shall he be endured 
by God in the holy office ; for he shall be thrust 
down there where Simon Magus is for his de- 
serts, and shall make him of Anagna go lower." 

gradually in underhand fashion turned against him. He died 
in I 3 14, eight months after the death of Henry. Beatrice 
here condemns him to the third bolgia of the eighth circle of 
Hell, whither, as Dante had learned from Pope Nicholas III. 
(see Hellf xix. 79—84) he was to follow Boniface VIII., 
— him of Anagna, — and push him deeper in the hole where 
the simoniacal Popes were punished. Boniface is called 
< him of Anagna,* because he was born in that town, and was 
imprisoned there in 1303. The modern form of the name 
of the town is Anagni. 


The Rose of Paradise, — St. Bernard, — Prayer to 
Beatrice, — The glory of the Blessed Virgin, 

In form then of a pure white rose the holy- 
host was shown to me, which, in His own 
blood, Christ made His bride. But the other,' 
which, flying, sees and sings the glory of Him 
who enamours it, and the goodness which made 
it so great, like a swarm of bees which one while 
inflower themselves and one while return to 
where their work acquires savor, were descend- 
ing into the great flower which is adorned with 
so many leaves, and thence rising up again to 
where their love always abides. They had their 
faces all of living flame, and their wings of gold, 
and the rest so white that no snow reaches that 
limit. When they descended into the flower, 
from bench to bench, they imparted of the 
peace and of the ardor which they acquired as 
they fanned their sides. Nor did the interpos- 
ing of so great a flying plenitude, between what 
was above and the flower, impede the sight or 
I . V. 4. The angelic host. 

vv. 22-43] CANTO XXXI 239 

the splendor ; for the divine light penetrates 
through the universe, according as it is worthy, 
so that naught can be an obstacle to it. This 
secure and joyous realm, thronged with ancient 
and with modern folk, had its look and love all 
on one mark. 

O Trinal Light, which in a single star, scin- 
tillating on their sight, dost so satisfy them, 
look down here upon our tempest ! 

If the Barbarians, coming from a region such 
that every day it is covered by Helice,'' revolv- 
ing with her son of whom she is fond, when 
they beheld Rome and her lofty work, — what 
time Lateran rose above mortal things,^ — were 
wonder-struck, I, who to the divine from the 
human, to the eternal from the temporal, had 
come, and from Florence to a people just and 
sane, with what amazement must I have been 
full ! Truly what with it and with the joy I 
was well pleased not to hear, and to stand mute. 
And as a pilgrim who is refreshed within the 

2. V. 32. The nymph Callisto, or Helice, bore to 
Zeus a son, Areas ; she was metamorphosed by Hera into 
a bear, and then transferred to Heaven by Jupiter as the 
constellation of the Great Bear, while her son was changed 
into the constellation of Arctophylax or the lesser Bear. In 
the far north these constellations are always high in the hea- 

3. V. 36. When Rome was mistress of the world, and 
the Lateran the seat of imperial or papal power. 

240 PARADISE [vv. 44-74 

temple of his vow as he looks around, and 
hopes some day to report how it was, so, jour- 
neying through the living light, I carried my 
eyes over the ranks, now up, now down, and 
now circling about. I saw faces persuasive to 
love, beautified by the light of Another and by 
their own smile, and actions graced with every 

My look had now comprehended the general 
form of Paradise as a whole, and on no part 
had my sight as yet been fixed ; and I turned 
me with rekindled wish to ask my Lady about 
things as to which my mind was in suspense. 
One thing I purposed, and another answered 
me ; I was thinking to see Beatrice, and I saw 
an old man, robed like the people in glory. 
His eyes and his cheeks were overspread with 
benignant joy, his mien kindly such as befits a 
tender father. And : " Where is she ? " on a 
sudden said I. Whereon he : " To terminate 
thy desire, Beatrice urged me from my place, 
and if thou lookest up to the third circle from 
the highest rank, thou wilt again see her upon 
the throne which her merits have allotted to 
her." Without answering I lifted up my eyes, 
and saw her as she made for herself a crown 
reflecting from herself the eternal rays. From 
that region which thunders highest up no mor- 
tal eye is so far distant, in whatsoever sea it lets 

vv. 75-102] CANTO XXXI 241 

itself sink deepest/ as there from Beatrice was 
my sight. But this was naught to me, for her 
image did not descend to me blurred by aught 

" O Lady, in whom my hope is strong, and 
who, for my salvation, didst endure to leave thy 
footprints in Hell, of all those things which I 
have seen through thy power and through thy 
goodness, I recognize the grace and the virtue. 
Thou hast drawn me from servitude to liberty 
by all those ways, by all the modes whereby 
thou hadst the power to do it. Guard thou in 
me thine own magnificence so that my soul, 
which thou hast made whole, may, pleasing to 
thee, be unloosed from the body." Thus I 
prayed ; and she, so distant, as it seemed, smiled 
and looked at me ; then turned to the eternal 

And the holy old man said: " In order that 
thou mayst complete perfectly thy journey, for 
which end prayer and holy love sent me, fly with 
thine eyes through this garden ; for seeing it 
will prepare thy look to mount further through 
the divine radiance. And the Queen of Heaven, 
for whom I burn wholly with love, will grant us 
every grace, because I am her faithful Bernard." ^ 

4. V. 75. From the highest region of the air to the low- 
est depth of the sea. 

5. V. 102. St. Bernard of Clairvaux, to whom, because 

242 PARADISE [vv. 103-122 

As is he who comes perchance from Croatia 
to see our Veronica/ who by reason of its an- 
cient fame is never sated, but says in thought, 
so long as it is shown : " My Lord Jesus Christ, 
true God, was then your semblance like to 
this? " ^ such was I, gazing on the living char- 
ity of him who, in this world, in contemplation, 
tasted of that peace. 

" Son of Grace, this glad existence," began he, 
" will not be known to thee holding thine eyes 
only down here at the base, but look on the 
circles even to the most remote, until thou 
seest upon her seat the Queen to whom this 
realm is subject and devoted." I lifted up my 
eyes ; and as at morning the eastern parts of 
the horizon surpass that where the sun declines, 
thus, as if going with my eyes from valley to 
mountain, I saw a part on the extreme verge 

of his fervent devotion to her, the Blessed Virgin had deigned 
to show herself during his life. 

6. V. 104. The likeness of the Saviour miraculously 
impressed upon the kerchief presented to him by a holy 
woman, on his way to Calvary, wherewith to wipe the 
sweat and dust from his face, and now religiously preserved 
at Rome, and shown at St. Peter's, on certain of the chief 
holy days. 

7. V. 108. The pilgrim, who has long heard of the 
Veronica and desired to see it, cannot sate his desire in gaz- 
ing at it, and in his thought says : " This, then. Lord Jesus, 
is your likeness." 

vv. 123-142] CANTO XXXI 243 

vanquishing in light all the rest of the front.^ 
And even as there where the pole which Phae- 
thon guided ill is awaited,*' the glow is bright- 
est, and on this side and that the light dimin- 
ishes, so that pacific oriflamme '° was vivid at 
the middle, and on each side in equal measure 
the flame slackened. And at that mid part I 
saw more than a thousand jubilant Angels with 
wings outspread, each distinct both in eflful- 
gence and in act. I saw there, smiling at their 
sports and at their songs, a Beauty " which was 
joy in the eyes of all the other saints. And if 
I had such wealth in speech as in imagining, I 
should not dare to attempt the least of its de- 

Bernard, when he saw my eyes fixed and in- 
tent upon the object of his own burning glow, 
turned his own with such affection to it, that 
he made mine more ardent to gaze anew. 

8. V. 123. All the rest of the circumference. 

9. V. 125. Where the chariot of the sun is about to 

10. V. 127. This oriflamme of peace is the part of the 
rose of Paradise where the Virgin is seated, and its mid point 
is the Virgin herself. It is called * the pacific * in contrast with 
the warlike oriflamme, the banner given by the archangel 
Gabriel to the ancient kings of France, which bore a flame 
on a field of gold, whence its name, aurea Jiamma. 

11. V. 134. The Blessed Virgin. 


St, Bernard describes the order of the Rose^ and points 
out many of the Saints. — The children in Paradise, — 
The angelic festival, — The patricians of the Court of 

With affection set on his Delight, that con- 
templator freely assumed the office of a teacher, 
and began these holy words : " The wound 
which Mary closed up and anointed, that one 
who is so beautiful at her feet is she who opened 
it and who pierced it. Beneath her, in the 
order which the third seats make, sits Rachel 
with Beatrice, as thou seest. Sara, Rebecca, 
Judith, and she ' who was great-grandmother of 
the singer who, through sorrow for his sin, said 
Miserere mei^ thou mayst see thus from rank to 
rank in gradation downward, as with the name 
of each I go downward through the rose from 
leaf to leaf And from the seventh row down- 
wards, even as down to it, Hebrew women fol- 
low in succession, dividing all the tresses of the 
flower ; because these are the wall by which the 

1. V. lo. Ruth. 

2. V. 12. «' Have mercy upon me." Psalm X\. i. 

vv. 19-36] CANTO XXXII 245 

sacred stairs are separated according to the look 
which faith turned on Christ. On this side, 
where the flower is mature with all its leaves, 
are seated those who believed in Christ about 
to come. On the other side, where the semi- 
circles are broken by empty spaces, are those 
who turned their faces on Christ already come.^ 
And as on this side the glorious seat of the 
Lady of Heaven, and the other seats below it, 
make so great a division, thus, opposite, does 
the seat of the great John, who, ever holy, en- 
dured the desert and martyrdom, and then Hell 
for two years ; ^ and beneath him Francis and 
Benedict and Augustine and others are allotted 
thus to divide, far down as here from circle to 

3. V. 27. The circle of the Rose is divided vertically in 
two equal parts. In the upper tiers of the one half, far as 
midway down the flower, the saints of the Old Dispensation, 
who believed in Christ about to come, are seated. These 
benches are full. On the corresponding benches of the other 
half, on which are some empty spaces, sit the redeemed of 
the New Dispensation who have believed in Christ already 
come. On one side the line of division between the semi- 
circles is made by the Hebrew women from the Virgin Mary 
downwards ; on the opposite side the line is made by St. John 
Baptist and other saints who had rendered special service to 
Christ and his Church. The lower tiers of scats arc occu- 
pied by innocent children elect to bliss. 

4. V. 33. The two years from the death of John to the 
death of Christ and his descent to Hell, to draw from the 
limbus patrum the souls predestined to salvation. 

246 PARADISE [vv. 37-60 

circle. Now behold the high divine foresight ; 
for one and the other aspect of the faith will 
fill this garden equally. And know that down- 
wards from the row which midway cleaves ^ the 
two divisions, they are seated for no merit of 
their own, but for that of others, under certain 
conditions ; for all these are spirits absolved ere 
they had true power of choice. Well canst thou 
perceive it by their faces, and also by their child- 
ish voices, if thou lookest well upon them and 
if thou listenest to them. Now thou art per- 
plexed, and in perplexity art silent ; but I will 
loose for thee the strong bond in which thy 
subtle thoughts fetter thee.^ Within the am- 
plitude of this realm a casual point can have no 
place,^ any more than sadness, or thirst, or hun- 
ger ; for whatever thou seest is established by 
eternal law, so that here the ring answers exactly 
to the finger. And therefore this folk, hastened 
to true life, is not sine causa more and less ex- 
cellent here among themselves.^ The King, 

5. V. 40. Those who are seated below the row which 
cleaves horizontally the two halves are children too young to 
have merit of their own. 

6. V. 51. The perplexity was. How can there be difFer- 
ence of merit in the innocent, assigning them to different seats 
in Paradise ? 

7. V. 53. No least thing can here be matter of chance. 

8. V. 60. It is not '' without cause *' that these children 
enjoy different measures of bliss. 

vv. 6i-76] CANTO XXXII 247 

through whom this realm reposes in such great 
love and in such great delight that no will dares 
for more, creating all the minds in His own 
glad aspect, endows with grace diversely accord- 
ing to His pleasure ; and here let the fact suf- 
fice.^ And this is expressly and clearly noted 
for you in the Holy Scripture in the case of 
those twins who, within their mother, had their 
anger stirred. '° Therefore, according to the 
color of the hair of such grace," the highest 
light must needs befittingly crown them. With- 
out, then, merit from their own ways, they are 
placed in different grades, differing only in their 
primary keenness of vision." In the early cen- 

9. V. 66. Without attempt to account for it or to seek 
the ** wherefore " of the will of God. 

10. V. 69. Jacob and Esau. See Genesis xxv. 22. 
** For the children being not yet born, neither having done 
any good or evil, that the purpose of God, according to elec- 
tion, might stand, not of works, but of him that calleth ; it 
was said unto her. The elder shall serve the younger." Ro- 
mans ix. I 1-12. 

11. v. 7 I . This strange metaphor has been apparently 
suggested by the reference to Jacob and Esau, who differed in 
color and skin. See Genesis xxv. 25. The argument is, that 
God imparts grace to one or another according to his plea- 
sure ; and as the hair of children differs in color without ap- 
parent reason, so the endowment of grace differs in measure 
for each, and in proportion to this diversity, docs the light of 
Heaven crown them. 

12. V. 75. In their innate capacity to see God, which 
is in proportion to the grace vouchsafed to them before birth. 

248 PARADISE [vv. 77-104 

turies, indeed, the faith of parents alone sufficed, 
together with innocence, to secure salvation ; 
after the first ages were complete, it was need- 
ful for males, through circumcision, to acquire 
power for their innocent wings. But after the 
time of grace had come, without perfect baptism 
in Christ, such innocence was held back there 

" Look now upon the face which most re- 
sembles Christ, for only its brightness can 
prepare thee to see Christ." 

I saw raining down on her such great joy, 
borne in the holy minds created to fly across 
through that height, that whatsoever I had seen 
before held me not suspended in such great 
wonder, nor showed to me such likeness unto 
God. And that Love which had before de- 
scended to her,''* in front of her spread wide 
his wings, singing " Ave^ Marian gratia plena ^ 
The blessed Court responded to the divine 
song from all sides, so that every countenance 
became thereby the more serene. 

" O holy Father, who for me endurest to be 
here below, leaving the sweet place in which 
thou sittest by eternal allotment, who is that 
Angel who with such joy looks into the eyes of 

13. V. 84. In the limbo of children. 

1 4. V. 94. In the heaven of the Fixed Stars ; Canto 
xxiii. 94. 

vv. 105-132] CANTO XXXII 249 

our Queen, so enamoured that he seems of 
fire ? " Thus did I again recur to the teaching 
of him who was deriving beauty from Mary, as 
the morning star from the sun. And he to me, 
" Confidence and grace as much as there can be 
in Angel and in soul, are all in him, and we 
would have it so, for he it is ^^ who bore the 
palm down to Mary, when the Son of God 
willed to load Himself with our burden. 

" But come now with thine eyes, as I shall 
proceed speaking, and note the great patricians 
of this most just and pious empire. Those 
two who sit there above, most happy through 
being nearest to the Empress, are, as it were, 
two roots of this rose. He who on the left is 
next her is the Father because of whose auda- 
cious tasting the human race tastes so much bit- 
terness. On the right see that ancient Father 
of Holy Church, to whom Christ entrusted the 
keys of this lovely flower. And he '^ who saw 
before his death all the grievous times of the 
fair bride, who was won with the spear and with 
the nails, sits at his side ; and by the other rests 
that leader, under whom the i^grate, fickle and 
stubborn people lived on manna. Opposite 

15. V. 112. The angel Gabriel ; Luke i. 26. 

16. V. 127. St. John, the Evangelist, who in his long 
life witnessed and suffered from the persecutions which the 
early Church had to endure. 

250 PARADISE [vv. 133-146 

Peter see Anna sitting, so content to gaze upon 
her daughter, that she moves not her eyes as 
she sings Hosannah ; and opposite the eldest 
father of a family sits Lucia/^ who moved thy 
Lady, when thou didst bend thy brow to rush 

" But because the time flies which holds thee 
slumbering,"' here will we make a stop, like a 
good tailor who makes the gown according as 
he has cloth, and we will direct our eyes to 
the First Love, so that, looking towards Him, 
thou mayst penetrate so far as is possible 
through His effulgence. But, lest perchance, 
moving thy wings, thou go backward, believing 

17. V. 137. The introduction of Lucia here is not less 
enigmatic than the choice of her for the functions which she 
performs in the other parts of the poems. Hell, ii. 97-108 ; 
Purgatory, ix. 55-63. 

18. V. 138. When in despair of reaching the height 
thou wert speeding down into the low place. See Hell, 
i. 61. 

19. V. 139. Dante has told us at the beginning of his 
ascent through the Heavens that he knows not whether he 
was there in body or only in spirit (Cantos i. 73-75 ; ii. 37- 
39). The hint of slumber let fall thus obiter in this verse 
aiFords, perhaps, the clue to his real conception. The body 
was lying in apparent physical sleep, while the soul, far from 
the body, was actually visiting the spiritual world. The 
journey through Paradise is the type of the deliverance of the 
soul from captivity to the law of sin, and from the body of 
this death. 

vv. 147-151] CANTO XXXII 251 

to advance, it is needful that grace be obtained 
by prayer ; grace from her who has the power 
to aid thee ; and do thou follow me with thy 
affection so that thy heart depart not from my 

And he began this holy prayer. 


Prayer to the Virgin, — The Beatific Vision, — The 
Ultimate Salvation, 

" Virgin Mother, daughter of thine own 
Son, humble and exalted more than any crea- 
ture, fixed term of the eternal counsel, thou art 
she who didst so ennoble human nature that its 
own Maker disdained not to become its crea- 
ture. Within thy womb was rekindled the 
Love through whose warmth this flower has 
thus blossomed in the eternal peace. Here 
thou art to us the noonday torch of charity, 
and below, among mortals, thou art the living 
fount of hope. Lady, thou art so great, and 
so availest, that whoso would have grace, and 
has not recourse to thee, would have his desire 
fly without wings. Thy benignity not only 
succors him who asks, but oftentimes freely 
foreruns the asking. In thee mercy, in thee 
pity, in thee magnificence, in thee whatever of 
goodness is in any creature, are united. Now 
doth this man, who, from the lowest abyss of 
the universe, far even as here, has seen one after 
one the spiritual lives, supplicate thee of grace. 

vv. 25-51] CANTO XXXIII 253 

for power such that he may be able with his eyes 
to uplift himself higher toward the Ultimate Sal- 
vation. And I5 who never for my own vision 
burned more than I do for his, proffer to thee 
all my prayers, and pray that they be not scant, 
that with thy prayers thou wouldst dispel for 
him every cloud of his mortality, so that the 
Supreme Pleasure may be displayed to him. 
Further I pray thee. Queen, who canst whatso 
thou wilt, that, after so great a vision, thou 
wouldst preserve his affections sound. May 
thy guardianship vanquish human impulses. 
Behold Beatrice with all the Blessed for my 
prayers clasp their hands to thee." ' 

The eyes beloved and venerated by God, 
fixed on the speaker, showed to us how pleas- 
ing unto her are devout prayers. Then to the 
Eternal Light were they directed, to which it 
may not be believed that eye so clear of any 
creature enters in. 

And I, who to the end of all desires was 
approaching, even as I ought, ended within my- 
self the ardor of my longing.'' Bernard made 
a sign to me, and smiled, that I should look 
upward ; but I was already, of myself, such as 

1. V. 39. In the Second Nuti* s Tale Chaucer has ren- 
dered, with great beauty, the larger part of this prayer. 

2. V. 48. The ardor of longing ceased in the consum- 
mation and enjoyment of desire. 

254^' PARADISE [vv. 52-76 

he wished ; for my sight, becoming pure, was 
entering more and more through the radiance 
of the lofty Light which in Itself is true. 

Thenceforward my vision was greater than 
our speech, which yields to such a sight, and 
the memory yields to such excess.^ 

As is he who dreaming sees, and after the 
dream the passion remains imprinted, and the 
rest returns not to the mind, such am I ; for my 
vision almost wholly departs, while the sweet- 
ness that was born of it yet distils within my 
heart. Thus the snow is by the sun unsealed ; 
thus by the wind, on the light leaves, was lost 
the saying of the Sibyl. 

Supreme Light, that so high upliftest 
Thyself from mortal conceptions, re-lend to 
my mind a little of what Thou didst appear, 
and make my tongue so powerful that it may 
be able to leave one single spark of Thy 
glory for the folk to come ; for, by returning 
somewhat to my memory and by sounding a 
little in these verses, more of Thy victory shall 
be conceived. 

1 think that by the keenness of the living ray 

3. V. 57. 

*' Vague words ! but ah, how hard to frame 
In matter-moulded forms of speech, 
Or ev'n for intellect to reach 
Thro' memory that which I became." 

In Memoriam, XCV. 

vv. 77-96] CANTO XXXIII 255 

which I endured, I should have been dazed if 
my eyes had been averted from it ; and I re- 
member that on this account I was the more 
hardy to sustain it till I conjoined my gaze with 
the Infinite Goodness. 

abundant Grace, whereby I presumed to 
fix my look through the Eternal Light till that 
there I consummated the seeing ! 

1 saw that in its depth is enclosed, bound up 
with love in one volume, that which is dis- 
persed in leaves through the universe ; sub- 
stance and accidents and their modes, fused 
together, as it were, in such wise, that that of 
which I speak is one simple Light. The uni- 
versal form of this knot^ I believe that I saw, 
because, in saying this, I feel that I rejoice more 
spaciously. One single moment only is greater 
oblivion for me than {ive and twenty centuries 
to the emprise which made Neptune wonder 
at the shadow of Argo.s 

4. V. 91. This union of substance and accident and 
their modes ; the unity of creation in the Creator. 

5. V. 96. The larger joy felt in the mention of what he 
saw, is proof that it was seen, but the vision so surpassed 
human faculties, though their power was exalted by grace, 
that they could not retain it in its completeness, but lost more 
of it in a single moment, than any loss which long lapse of 
time may work for past events. 

Neptune wondered at the shadow of Argo because it was 
the first vessel that sailed the sea. 

256 PARADISE [vv. 97-125 

Thus my mind, wholly rapt, was gazing 
fixed, motionless, and intent, and ever with 
gazing grew enkindled. In that Light one be- 
comes such that it is impossible he should ever 
consent to turn himself from it for other sight; 
because the Good which is the object of the 
will is all collected in it, and outside of it that 
is defective which is perfect there. 

Now will my speech fall more short, even in 
respect to that which I remember, than that of 
an infant who still bathes his tongue at the 
breast. Not because more than one simple 
semblance was in the Living Light wherein I 
was gazing, which is always such as it was be- 
fore ; but through my sight, which was growing 
strong in me as I looked, one sole appearance, 
as I myself changed, was altering itself to me. 

Within the profound and clear subsistence of 
the lofty Light appeared to me three circles 
of three colors and of one dimension ; and one 
seemed reflected by the other, as Iris by Iris,^ 
and the third seemed fire which from the one 
and from the other is equally breathed forth. 

O how inadequate is speech, and how feeble 
toward my conception ! and this toward what I 
saw is such that it suffices not to call it little. 

O Light Eternal, that sole abidest in Thy- 
self, sole understandest Thyself, and, by Thy- 

6. V. 1 18. As one arch of the rainbow by the other. 

vv. 126-145] CANTO XXXIII 257 

self understood and understanding, lovest and 
smilest on Thyself! That circle, which ap- 
peared in Thee generated as a reflected light, 
being awhile surveyed by my eyes, seemed to 
me depicted with our effigy within itself, of its 
own very color ; wherefore my sight was wholly 
set upon it. As is the geometer who wholly 
applies himself to measure the circle, and finds 
not by thinking that principle of which he is in 
need, such was I at that new sight. I wished 
to see how the image was conformed to the 
circle, and how it has its place therein ; but my 
own wings were not for this, had it not been 
that my mind was smitten by a flash in which 
its wish came. 

To the high fantasy here power failed ; but 
now my desire and my will were revolved, like 
a wheel which is moved evenly, by the Love 
which moves the sun and the other stars. ^ 

7. V. 145. By the grace of God Dante's desire was ful- 
filled in this vision, and his beatitude perfected in the con- 
formity of his will with the Divine. 


[The references are to Canto and Verse] 

Abati, Bocca degli. Hell, xxxii. io6. 

Abbagliato. Hell, xxix. 132. 

Abbey of San Benedetto. Hell, xvi. 


Abel. Hell, iv. 56. 

Abraham. Hell, iv. 58. 

Absalom. Hell, xxviii. 137. 

Abydos. Purg. xxviii. 74. 

Accorso, Francis of. Hell, xv. no. 

Achan. Purg. xx. 109. 

Acheron. Hell, iii. 78; xiv. 116; 

Purg. ii. 105. 
Achilles. Hell, v. 65 ; xii. 71 ; xxvi. 

62; xxxi. 5; Purg. ix. 34; xxi. 92. 
Achitophel. Hell, xxviii. 137. 
Acone. Par. xvi. 65. 
Acquacheta. Hell, xvi. 97-99. 
Acquasparta. Par. xii. 124. 
Acre. Hell, xxvii. 89. 
Adam. Hell, iii. 115; iv. 55; Purg. 

ix. 10; xi. 44; xxix. 86; xxxii. 37; 

xxxiii. 62; Par. vii. 26; xiii. 37, 82; 

xxvi. 83, 91, 92 ; xxxii. 120, 122, 136. 
Adam of Brescia. Hell, xxx. 61, 104. 
Adige. Hell, xii. 5 ; Purg. xvi. 115 ; 

Par. ix. 44. 
Adimari, family. Par. xvi. 115. 
Adrian V. Purg. xix. 79. 
Aegidius. Par. xi. 83. 
Aeneas. Hell, ii. 32; iv. 122; xxvi. 93; 

Purg. xviii. 137 ; Par. vi. 3 ; xv. 27. 
Aeneid. Purg. xxi. 97. 
Aeolus. Purg. xxviii. 21. 
Aesop. Hell, xxiii. 4. 
Africanus, Scipio. Purg. xxix. 116. 
Agamemnon. Par. v. 69. 
Agapetus. Par. vi. 16. 
Agathon. Purg. xxii. 107. 
Aglauros. Purg. xiv. 139. 
Agnello Brunelleschi. Hell, xxv. 68. 
Aguglione. Par. xvi. 56. 
Ahasuerus, King. Purg. xvii. 28. 
Alagia. Purg. xix. 142. 
Alardo. Hell, xxviii. 18. 
Alba Longa. Par. vi. 37. 
Alberichi, family. Par. xvi. 89. 
Alberigo, Jovial Friar. Hell, xxxiii. 


Albert of Austria. Purg. vi. 97 ; Par. 

xix. 115. 
Albert of Siena. Hell, xxix. 109. 
Alberti, Alessandro and Napoleone 

degli. Hell, xxxii. 21. 
Alberto degli Alberti. Hell, xxxii. 57. 
Alberto della Scala. Purg. xviii. 121. 
Albertus Magnus. Par. x. 98. 
Alboino della Scala. Par. xvii. 71. 
Alchemists. Hell, xxix. 
Alcides. Par. ix. loi. 
Alcmaeon. Purg. xii. 50; Par. iv. 103. 
Aldobrandeschi, Guglielmo. Purg. xi. 

Aldobrandi, Tegghiaio. Hell, vi. 79; 

xvi. 41. 
Alecto. Hell, ix. 47. 
Alessandria. Purg. vii. 135. 
Alessandro, Count of Romena. Hell, 

xxx. 77. 
Alessandro degli Alberti. Hell, xxxii. 

Alessio Interminei. Hell, xviii. 122. 
Alexander, Tyrant of Pherae. Hell, 

xii. 107. 
Alexander the Great. Hell, xii. 107 ; 

xiv. 31. 
Alfonso of Aragon. Purg. vii. 116. 
Ali, disciple of Mahomet. Hell, xxviii. 

Alichino, demon. Hell, xxi. 118; xxii. 

Alighieri, family. Par. xv. 92. 
Alps. Hell, XX. 62; Purg. xvii. i; 

xxxiii. III. 
Altaforte. Hell, xxix. 29. 
Alvernia, Mount. Par. xi. 106, 107. 
Amata. Purg. xvii. 35. 
Amidei, family. Par. xvi. 136, 
Amphiaraus. Hell, xx. 34. 
Amphion. Hell, xxxii. 11. 
Amphisbaena, serpent. Hell, xxiv. 87. 
Amyclas. Par. xi. 68. 
Anagna. Purg. xx. 86; Par. xxx. 148. 
Ananias. Par. xxvi. 12. 
Anastagi, family. Purg. xiv. 107. 
Anastasius, Pope. Hell, xi. 8. 
Anaxagoras. Hell, iv. 137. 



Anchises. Hell, i. 74; Purg. xviii. 

137 ; Par. xv. 25 ; xix. 132. 
Angels. Par. xxviii. 126 ; xxxi. 4-18. 
Angels, rebel. Par. xxix. 38. 
Angiolello da Cagnano. Hell, xxviii. 

Anna, St. , mother of the Virgin Mary. 

Par. xxxii. 133. 
Annas. Hell, xxiii. 121. 
Anselm, St. Par. xii. 137. 
Anselm, grandson of Ugolino. Hell, 

xxxiii. 50. 
Antaeus. Hell, xxxi. 100, 113, 139. 
Antandros. Par. vi. 67. 
Antenora. Hell, xxxii. 88. 
Antenori (Paduans). Purg. v. 75. 
Antigone. Purg. xxii. no. 
Antiochus Epiphanes. Hell, xix. 87. 
Antiphon. Purg. xxii. 106. 
Antony, St. Par. xxix. 124. 
Apennines. Hell, xvi. 96 ; xx. 65 ; 

xxvii. 30 ; Purg. v. 96 ; xiv. 32, 92 ; 

XXX. 86 ; Par. xxi. 106. 
Apocalypse. Hell, xix. 106-108 ; Purg. 

xxix. 105, 143-148 ; Par. xxv. 94-96. 
Apollo. Purg. XX. 132 ; Par. i. 13 ; ii. 

Apostles. Purg. xxii. 78. 
-Apulia. Hell, xxviii. 9 ; Purg. v. 69 ; 

vii. 126; Par. viii. 61-63. 
Apulians. Hell, xxviii. 17. 
Aquarius, sign of the Zodiac. Hell, 

xxiv. 2. 
Aquilo. Purg. iv. 60 ; xxxii. 99. 
Aquinas, St. Thomas. Par. x. 99 ; xii. 

no, 144. 
Arabs. Par. vi. 49. 
Arachne. Hell, xvii. 18; Purg. xii. 43. 
Aragon. Purg. iii. 116. 
Aragonese. Par. xix. 131. 
Arbia. Hell, x. 86. 
Area, family. Par. xvi. 92. 
Archangels. Par. xxviii. 125. 
Archiano. Purg. v. 95, 125. 
Ardinghi, family. Par. xvi. 93. 
Arethusa. Hell, xxv. 97. 
Aretine, Benincasa. Purg. vi. 13. 
Aretine, GrifEolino. Hell, xxix. 109- 

120 ; XXX. 31. 
Aretines. Hell, xxii. 5 ; Purg. xiv. 46- 

Arezzo. Hell, xxix. 109. 
Argenti, Filippo. __ Hell, viii. 61. 
Argia. Purg. xxii. no. 
Argo. Par. xxxiii. 96. 
Argolic people. Hellj^xxviii. 84. 
Argonauts. Par. ii. 16. 
Argus. Purg. xxix. 95 ; xxxii. 64-66. 
Ariadne. Hell, xii. 20; Par. xiii. 14. 
Aries, sign of the Zodiac. Purg. xxxii. 

53; Par. i. 40; xxviii. 117. 
Aristotle. Hell, iv. 131 ; Purg. iii. 43 ; 

Par. viii. 120. 

Arius. Par. xiii. 127. 

Ark, the holy. Purg. x. 56; Par. xx. 

Aries. Hell, ix. 112. 
Amaut, Daniel. Purg. xxvi. 142, 170. 
Arno. Hell, xiii. 146; xv. 113; xxiii. 

95 ; XXX. 65 ; xxxiii. 83 ; Purg. v. 

126; xiv. 17, 24, 26, 51, 60; Par. xi. 

Arrigo Mainardi. Purg. xiv. 97. 
Arrigucci family. Par. xvi. 108. 
Arsenal of Venice. Hell, xxi. 7. 
Arthur, King. Hell, xxxii. 62. 
Aruns. Hell, xx. 46. 
Ascesi, or Assisi. Par. xi. 53. 
Asciano. Hell, xxix. 131. 
Asdente. Hell, xx. 118. 
Asopus. Purg. xviii. 91. 
Assyrians. Purg. xii. 59. 
Athamas. Hell, xxx. 4. 
Athens. Hell, xii. 17; Purg. vi. 139; 

XV. 97 ; Par. xvii. 46. 
Atropos. Hell, xxxiii. 126. 
Attila. Hell, xii. 134 ; xiii. 149. 
Augustin, one of the first followers of 

St. Francis. Par. xii. 130. 
Augustine, St. Par. x. 120 ; xxxii. 35. 
Augustus Caesar. Hell, i. 71 ; Purg. 

xxix. 116; Par. vi. 73. 
Augustus (Frederick II.). Hell, xiii. 

Aulis. Hell, XX. III. 
Aurora. Purg. ii. 8 ; ix. i. 
Ausonia. Par. viii. 61. 
Auster. Purg. xxxii. 99. 
Austria. Hell, xxxii. 26. 
Avaricious, the. Hell, vii.; Purg. 

xix. ; XX. ; xxi. 
Aventine, Mount. Hell, xxv. 26. 
Averroes. Hell, iv. 144. 
Avicenna. Hell, iv. 143. 
Azzo degli Ubaldini. Purg. xiv. 105. 
Azzolino, or Ezzelino. Hell, xii. no; 

Par. ix. 29. 

B and Ice, Bice (Beatrice). Par. vii. 

Babylon. Par. xxiii. 135. 
Bacchantes. Purg. xviii. 92. 
Bacchiglione. Hell, xv. 113; Par. ix. 

Bacchus. Hell, xx. 59; Purg. xviii. 

93 ; Par. xiii. 25. 
Bagnacaval. Purg. xiv. 115. 
Bagnoregio. Par. xii. 128. 
Baldo d' Aguglione. Par. xvi. 56. 
Baptist, St. John the. Hell, xiii. 143 ; 

xxx. 74 ; Purg. xxii. 152 ; Par. xvi. 

25, 47; xviii. 134, 135 ; xxxii. 31. 
Baptistery of Florence. Par. xxv. 134. 
Barbagia of Sardinia. Purg. xxiii. 94; 

Barbarians, Northern. Par. xxxi. 31. 



Barbariccia, demon. Hell, xxi. 120; 

xxii. 29, 59, 145. 
Barbarossa, Frederick I. Purg. xvni. 

Bari. Par. viii. 62. 
Barrators (peculators). Hell, xxi._ 
Bartolomeo della Scala. Par. xvii. 71. 
Barucci family. Par. xvi. 104. 
Bears, constellations of the. Purg. iv. 

65 ; Par. ii. g ; xiii. 7. 
Beatrice. Hell, ii. 70, 103 ; x. 131 ; xii. 

88; XV. 90; Purg. i. 53; vi. 46; xv. 

77; xviii. 48, 73; xxiii. 128; xxvii. 

36, S3, 136; XXX. 73; xxxi. 80, 107, 

ii4> 133; xxxii. 36, 85, 106; xxxiii* 

4, 124 ; Par. i. 46, 64 ; ii. 22 ; iii. 

127; iv. 13, 39; V. 16, 85, 122; vii. 

16; ix. 16; X. 37, 52, 60; xi. 11; 

xiv. 8, 79; XV. 70; xvi. 13; xvii. 5, 

30; xviii. 17, 53; xxi. 63 ; xxii. 125; 

xxxiii. 19, 34, 76; xxiv. 10, 22, 55; 

XXV. 28, 137; xxvi. 77; xxvii. 34, 

102 ; xxix. 8 ; xxx. 14, 128 ; xxxi. 59, 

66, 76; xxxii. 9; xxxiii. 38. 
Beatrice, Queen. Purg. vii. 128. 
Beccheria, Abbot of. Hell, xxxii. 119. 
Bade, the Venerable. Par. x. 131. 
Beelzebub. Hell, xxxiv. 127. 
Belacqua. Purg. iv. 123. 
Belisarius. Par. vi. 25. 
Bellincion Berti. Par. xv. 112; xvi. 99. 
Bello, Geri del. Hell, xxix. 27. 
Belus, King of Tyre. Par. ix. 97. 
Benaco. Hell, xx. 63, 74, 77. 
Benedetto, San, Abbey of. Hell, xvi. 

Benedict, St. Par. xxii. 28, 58 ; xxxii. 

Benevento. Purg. iii. 128. 
Benincasa of Arezzo. Purg. vi. 13. 
Berenger, Raymond. Par. vi. 134. 
Bergamasque. Hell, xx. 71. 
Bernard, Friar. Par. xi. 79. 
Bernard, St., Abbot. Par. xxxi. 102, 

139; xxxii. I, 107. 
Bernardin di Fosco. Purg. xiv. loi. 
Bernardone, Pietro. Par. xi. 89. 
Bertha, Dame. Par. xiii. 139. 
Berti, Bellincion. Par. xv. 112; xvi. 

Bertran de Born. Hell, xxviii. 134. 
Bianchi, White Party. Hell, vi. 65. 
Bice (Beatrice). Hell, ii. 53, 76, 103. 
Billi or Pigli, family. Par. xvi. 3. 
Bindi, abbreviation of Ildebrando. 

Par. xxix. 103. 
Bisenzio. Hell, xxxii. 56. 
Bismantova. Purg. iv. 26. 
Bocca degli Abati. Hell, xxxii. 106. 
Boethius, Severinus. Par. x. 124-129. 
Bohemia. Pure. vii. 99 ; Par. xix. 125. 
Bologna. Hell, xxiii. 142 ; Purg. xiv. 


Bolognese. Hell, xxiii. 103. 

Bolsena. Purg. xxiv. 24. 

Bonagiunta Urbiciani, of Lucca. Purg. 

xxiv. iQ, 20. 
Bonatti, Guido. Hell, xx. 118. 
Bonaventura, St. Par. xii. 127. 
Boniface, Archbishop of Ravenna. 

Purg. xxiv. 29. 
Boniface VIII. Hell, xix. 53; xxvii. 

70, 85; Purg. XX. 87; xxxii. 149; 

Par. ix. 142; xii. 90; xvii. 49-51; 

xxvii. 22-24; xxx. 148. 
Boniface of Signa. Par. xvi. 56. 
Bonturo de' Dati. .Hell, xxi. 41. 
Boreas. Par. xxviii. 81. 
Borgo of Florence. Par. xvi. 134. 
Born, Bertran de. Hell, xxviii. 134. 
Borsiere, Guglielmo. Hell, xvi. 70. 
Bostichi, family. Par. xvi. 93. 
Brabant, Lady of. Purg. vi. 23. 
Branca d' Oria. Hell, xxxiii. 137, 140. 
Branda, fountain. Hell, xxx. 78. 
Brennus. Par. vi. 44. 
Brenta. Hell, xv. 7 ; Par. ix. 27. 
Brescia. Hell, xx. 68. 
Brescians. Hell, xx. 71. 
Brettinoro. Purg. xiv. 112. 
Briareus. Hell, xxxi. 98 ; Purg. xii. 

Bridge of St. Angelo. Hell, xviii. 29. 
Brigata. Hell, xxxiii. 89. 
Brissus. Par. xiii. 125. 
Brosse, Pierre de la. Purg. vi. 22. 
Bruges. Hell, xv. 4 ; Purg. xx. 46. 
Brundusium. Purg. iii. 27. 
Brunelleschi, Agnello. Hell, xxv. 68. 
Brunetto Latini. Hell, xv. 30, 32, loi. 
Brutus, enemy of Tarquin. Hell, iv. 

Brutus and Cassius. Par. vi. 74. 
Buggia. Par. ix. 92. 
Buiamonte, Giovanni. Hell, xvii. 72. 
Bulicame, hot spring of Viterbo. Hell, 

xiv. 79. 
Buonconte di Montefeltro. Purg. v. 

Buondelmonte. Par. xvi. 140. 
Buondelmonti, family. Par. xvi. 66. 
Buoso da Duera. Hell, xxxii. 106, 

114, 116. 
Buoso degli Abati. Hell, xxv. 140. 
Buoso Donati. Hell, xxx. 44. 

Caccia d' Asciano. Hell, xxix. 131. 
Cacciaguida. Par. xv. 20, 22, 31, 52, 

85, 8g, 13s; xvi. 16, 17, i8, 22,30; 

xviii. 2, 25, 50, 51. 
Caccianimico, Venedico. Hell, xviii. 

Cacus. Hell, xxv. 25. 
Cadiz. Par. xxvii. 82. 
Cadmus. Hell, xxv. 97. 
Caecilius. Purg. xxii. 98. 



Caesar. Hell, xiii. 65 ; Purg. vi. 92, 
114; Par. i. 92 : vi. 114; x\'i. 59. 

Caesar, Julius. Hell, i. 70; iv. 123; 
xx\-iii. 9S : Purg. xviii. 131 ; sxvi. 
77; Par. vi. 57. 

Caesar, Tiberius. Par. vi. 10. 

Cagnano, Angiolello da. Hell, xxviii. 

Cagnano- Par. ix. 49. 

Cagnazzo, demon. Hell, xxi. 119. 

Cahors. Hell, xi. 50; Par. xxvii. 58. 

Caiaphas. Hell, xxiii. iii, 115. 

Cain. Purg. xiv. 133. 

Cain and his thorns (man in the moon). 

Hell, XX. 126: Par. ii. 51. 
Caina. Hell, v. 107 ; xxxii. 58. 
Calaroga. Par. xii. 52. 
Calboli family. Purg. xiv. 89. 
Calcabrina, demon. Hell, xxi. 118; 

xxii. 133. 
Calchas. Hell, xx. no. 
Calfucci, family. Par. xvi. 106. 
Calixnis I. Par. xxvii. 44. 
Calliope. Purg. i. 9. 
Callisto (Helice). Purg. xxv. 131. 
Camaldoli. Purg. v. 96. 
Camicion de' Pazzi. Hell, xxxii. 68. 
Camilla. Hell, i. 107 ; iv. 124. 
Camino, Gherardo da. Purg. xvi. 124, 

133, 13s. 
Camino, Riccardo da. Par. ix. 49-51. 
Camonica, Val. Hell, xx. 65. 
Campagnatico. Purg. xi. 66. 
Campaldino. Purg. v. 92. 
Campi. Par. xvi. 50. 
Canavese. Purg. \-ii. 136. 
Cancellieri, family. Hell, xxxii. 63. 
Cancer, sign of the Zodiac. Par. xxv. 


Can Grande della Scala. Par. xvn. 76, 

Capaneus. Hell, xiv. 63. 
Capet, Hugh. Purg xx. 43. 
Capocchio. Hell, xxix. 136 ; xxx. 28. 
Caponsacco. Par. x-^n. 121. 
Cappelletti, family. Purg. vi. 106. 
Caprara. Hell, xxxiii. S2. 
Capricorn, sign of the Zodiac. Purg. 

ii. 57; Par. xx^•ii. 69. 
Caprona. Hell, xxi. 95. 
Cardinal, the (Otta%-iano degli Ubal- 

dini). Hell, x. 120. 
Carisenda. Hell, xxxi. 136. 
Carlino de' Pazzi. _ Hell, xxxii. 69. 
Carpigna, Guido di. Purg. xiv. 98. 
Carrarese. Hell, xx. 48. 
Casale. Par. xii. 124. 
Casalodi, family ._ Hell, xx. 95. 
Casella. Purg. ii. 91. 
Casenrlno. Hell, xxx. 65 ; Purg. v. 94; 

xiv. 43- . 
Cassero, Guido del. Hell, xxviii. 77. 
Cassero, Jacopo del. Purg. v. 64-84. 

Cassino, Monte. Par. xxii. 37. 
Cassius, murderer of Caesar. Hell, 

xxxiv. 67. 
Cassius and Brutus. Par. vi. 74. 
Castel, Guido da. Purg. xvi. 125. 
Castile. Par. xii. 49-54. 
Castle of St. Angelo in Rome. Hell, 

xviii. 29. 
Castor and Pollux. Purg. iv. 61 ; Par. 

xx^ii. 98. 
Castrocaro. Purg. xiv. 116. 
Catalan de' Malavolti. Hell, xxiii. 

104, 114. 
Catalonia. Par. %'iii. 77. 
CatelUni, family. Par. xvi. 88. 
Cato of Utica. Hell, xiv. 15 ; Purg. i. 

31, 73) 133; ii- 119- 
Catona. Par. vm. 62. 
Catria. Par. xxi. 109. 
Cattolica. Hell, xxviii. 80. 
Cavalcante de' Cavalcanti. Hell, x. 

53. no- 
Cavalcanti, Guercio. Hell, xxv. 35, 

83, 151. 
Cavalcanti, Guido. Hell, x. 63. 
Cecina. Hell, xiii. 9. 
Celestine V. Hell, iii. 59; xxvii. 105. 
Cenchri, serpents. HeU, xxiv. 87. 
Centaur. Hell, xii. 104, 115, 129; Purg. 

xxiv. 121-123. 
Ceperano. Hell, xxvTii. 16. 
Cephas. Par. xxi. 127. 
Cerberus. Hell, vi. 13, 22, 32 ; ix. 98. 
Cerchi, family. Par. xvi. 65. 
Ceres. *Purg. xx%'i_ii. 49-51. 
Certaldo. Par. xvi. 50. 
Cenn.a. Hell, xx^ii. 42. 
Cesena. Hell, xxvii. 52. 
Ceuta (Setta). Hell, xxvi. in. 
Chaos. Hell, xii. 43. 
Charity, St. John examines Dante on. 

Par. xxvi. 
Charlemagne, Emperor. Hell, xxxi. 

17 ; Par. vi. 94 ; x^-iii. 43. 
Charles of Anjou. Purg. vii. 113 ; xi. 

Charles of Valois (Senzaterra, Lack- 
land). Purg. XX. 71. 
Charles Martel. Par. viii. 31; ix. i. 
Charles Robert of Hungary. Par. 

viii. 72. 
Charles II. of Apulia. Purg. vii. 127 ; 

XX. 79 ; Par. vi. 106 ; xix. 127 ; xx. 

Charles's Wain, the Great Bear. Hell, 

xi. 114 ; Purg. i. 30 ; Par. xiii. 7. 
Charon. Hell. iii. 94, 109, 128. 
Char^-bdis. HeU, vii. 22. 
Chastity, examples of. Purg. xxv. 133. 
Chelydri, serpents. Hell, xxiv. 86. 
Cherubim. Par. xx\-iii. 99. 
Chiana. Par. xiii. 23. 
Chiarentana. Hell, xv. 9. 



Chiascio, river. Par. xi. 43, 44. 
Chiassi. Purg. xxviii. 20. 
Chiaveri. Purg. xix. 120. 
Chiron. Hell, xii. 65, 71, 77, 97; 

Purg. ix. 37. 
Chiusi. Par. xvi. 75. 
Christ. Hell, xxxiv. 115 ; Purg. xv. 89 ; 

XX. 87; xxi. 8; xxiii. 74; xxvi. 129; 

xxxii. 81, 102 ; xxxiii. 63 ; Par. vi. 14; 

ix. 120; xi. 72, 102, 107; xii. 37, 71; 

xiv. 104; xvii. 33, 51; xix. 72, 104; 

XX. 47; xxiii. 20, 72, 107, 136; XXV. 

IS, 72, 113; xxix. 98, 109; xxxi. 3, 

107 ; xxxii. 20, 24, 27, 83, 85, 87, 125 ; 

xxxiii. no. 
Christians. Purg. x, 121 ; Par. v. 73 ; 

xix. 109 ; XX. 104. 
Chrj'sostom, St. Par. xii. 137. 
Church of Rome. JHell, xix. 57; Purg. 

xvi. 127 ; Par. xvii. 72. 
Ciacco. Hell, vi. 52. 
Ciampolo, or Giampolo. Hell, xxii. 32, 

44, 121. 
Cianfa de' Donati. Hell, xxv. 43. 
Cianghella. Par. xv. 128. 
Cieldauro. Par. x. 128. 
Cimabue. Purg. xi. 94. 
Cincinnatus, Quinctius. Par. vi, 46; 

XV. 129. 
Circe. Hell, xxvi. 91 ; Purg. xiv. 42. 
Ciriatto, demon. Hell, xxi. 122 ; 

xxii. 55. 
Clara, St., of Assisi. Par. iii. 98. 
Clemence, Queen. Par. ix. i. 
Clement IV. Purg. iii. 125. 
Clement V. Hell, xix. 83 ; Par. xvii. 

82 ; XXX. 197. 
Cleopatra. Hell, v. 63; Par. vi. 76. 
Cletus. Par. xxvii. 41. 
Clio. Purg. xxii. 58. 
Clothe. Purg. xxi. 27. 
Clymene. Par. xvii. i. 
Cock, arms of Gallura. Purg. viii. 81. 
Cocytus. Hell, xiv. 119; xxxi. 123, 

173; xxxiii. ij6; xxxiv. 52. 
Colchians. Hell, xviii. 87. 
Colchos. Par. ii. 16. 
Colle. Purg. xiii. 115. 
Cologne. Hell, xxiii. 63. 
Colonnesi, family. Hell, xxvii. 86. 
Comedy. Dante thus names his poem. 

Hell, xvi. 128. 
Conio. Purg. xiv. 116. 
Conrad or Corrado Malaspina. Purg. 

viii. 65 ; 118. 
Conrad or Corrado III., Emperor. 

Par. XV. 139. 
Conrad or Corrado da Palazzo. Purg. 

xvi. 124. 
Conradin. Purg. xx. 68. 
Conscience. Hell, xxviii. 115. 
Constance, Queen of Aragon. Purg. 
iii. 115, 143 ; vii. 129., 

Constance, wife of Henry VI. of Ger- 
many. Purg. iii. 113 ; Par. iii. 118; 
iv. 98. 

Constantine the Great. Hell, xix. 115 ; 
xxvii. 94; Purg. xxxii. 124 ; Par. vi. i ; 
XX. 55. 

Constantinople. Par. vi. 5. 

Cornelia. Hell, iy. 128; Par, xv. 129. 

Corneto. Hell, xii. 137. 

Corsica. Purg. xviii. 81. 

Corso de' Donati. Purg. xxiv. 82. 

Corns, northwrest wind. Hell, xi, 114, 

Cosenza. Purg. iii. 124. 

Counsellors, evil. Hell, xxvi. 

Counterfeiters of money, speech, or 
person. Hell, xxx, 

Crassus. Purg. xx, 116, 

Crete. Hell, xii. 12 ; xiv. 95. 

Creusa. Par. ix. 98. 

Croatia. Par. xxxi. 103, 

Crusaders and Soldiers of the Faith, 
Par. xiv. 

Cunizza, sister of Ezzelino III. Par. 
ix. 32. 

Cupid. Par. viii. 7. 

Curiatii, the. Par. vi, 39. 

Curio. Hell, xxviii. 102. 

Cyclops. Hell, xiv. 55. 

Cypriote, the (Venus). Par, viii. 2. 

Cyprus, Hell, xxviii, 82; Par. xix, 

Cyrrha. Par, i. 36. 

Cyrus, Purg. xii. 56. 

Cytherea (the planet Venus). Purg, 
xxvii, 95, 

Daedalus, Hell, xvii. in; xxix, 116; 

Par. viii, 125. 
Damian, Peter. Par. xxi. 121, 
Damietta. Hell, xiv. 104. 
Daniel, Prophet. Purg. xxii. 146 ; Par. 

iv. 13 ; xxix. 134. 
Daniel, Arnaut. Purg. xxvi, u6, 142, 
Dante, Purg. xxx. 55. 
Danube. Hell, xxxii. 26; Par. viii. 65. 
David, King. Hell, iv. 58 ; xxviii. 138 ; 

Purg. X, 63 ; Par. xx. 38 ; xxv. 72 ; 

xxxii. II, 204. 
Decii, the. Par. vi. 47. 
Decretals, Book of. Par. ix. 134. 
Deidamia. Hell, xxvi. 62 ; Purg. xxii. 

1.14- . 
Deiphile. Purg. xxii. 10. 
Dejanira. Hell, xii. 68. 
Delia (the Moon). Purg. xx. 132; 

xxix. 78. 
Delos. Purg. xx. 130. 
Democritus. Hell, iv. 136. 
Demophobn, Par. ix. loi, 
Denis, King of Portugal, Par. xix. 

Diana. Purg. xx. 132; xxv. 131 ; Par. 

xxiii. 26, 149. 



Diana, subterranean river. Purg. xiii. 

Dido. Hell, v. 85 ; Par. viii. 9. 
Diligence, examples of. Purg. xviii. 

Diogenes. Hell, iv. 137. 
Diomed. Hell, xxvi. 56. _ 
Dione, Venus. Par. viii. 7 ; Planet 

Venus, xxii. 144. 
Dionysius the Areopagite. Par. x. 

115 ; xxviii. 130. 
Dionysius, Tyrant. Hell, xii. 107. 
Dioscorides. Hell, iv. 140. 
Dis, city of. Hell, viii. 68 ; xi. 104 ; 

xii. 39 ; xxxiv. 20. 
Dolcino, Fra. Hell, xxviii. 55. 
Dominations, order of angels. Par. 

xxviii. 122. 
Dominic, St. Par. x. 95; xi. 35, 118; 

xii. 55, 70, n. 
Dominicans. Par. xi. 124. 
Domitian, Emperor. Purg. xxii. 83. 
Don, river. Hell, xxxii. 27. 
Donati, Buoso. Hell, xxx. 44. 
Donati, Corso. Purg. xxiv. 82. 
Donati, Forese. Purg. xxiii. 48, 76 ; 

xxiv. 74. 
Donati, Ubertin. Par. xvi. 119. 
Donatus. Par. xii. 137. 
Douai. Purg. xx. 46. 
Draghignazzo, demon. Hell, xxi. 121 ; 

xxii. 73. 
Dragon. Purg. xxxii. 131. 
Duca, Guido del. Purg. xiv. 81; xv. 

Duera, Buoso da. Hell, xxxii. 106. 
Duke of Athens, Theseus. Hell, ix. 

54; xii. 17; Purg. xxiv. 123. 
Dyrrachium. Par. vi. 65. 

Ebro. Purg. xxvii. 3 ; Par. ix. 89. 

Eclogue IV. of Virgil. Purg. xxii. 57. 

Egidius. Par. xi. 83. 

Egina. Hell, xxix. 59. 

Egypt. Par. xxv. 55. 

Elbe. Purg. vii. 99. 

El and Eli, names of God. Par. xxvi. 

Electra. Hell, iv. 121. 
Elias. Purg. xxxii. 80. 
Elijah, Prophet. Hell, xxvi. 35. 
Eliseo, ancestor of Dante. Par. xv. 

Elisha, Prophet. ..Hell, xxvi. 35. 
Elsa. Purg. xxxiii. 67. 
Elysium. Par. xv. 27. 
Ema. Par. xvi. 143. 
Empedocles. Hell, iv. 138. 
Empyrean. Par. xxx. 
England. Purg. vii. 131. 
Envious, the. Purg. xiii. ; xiv. 
Ephialtes. Hell, xxxi. 94, io8. 
Epicurus. Hell, x. 14. 

Equator. Purg. iv. 80. 
Equinoctial sunrise. Par. i. 38. 
Erichtho. Hell, ix. 23. 
Erinnyes, the Furies. Hell, ix. 45. 
Eriphyle. Purg. xii. 50. 
Erisichthon. Purg. xxiii. 26. 
Esau. Par. viii. 130; xxxii. 68. 
Essence, the Divine. Par. xxxiii. 16. 
Este, or Esti, Azzone da. Purg. v. ']^. 
Este, or Esti, Obizzo da. Hell, xii. 

Esther. Purg. xvii. 29. 
Eteocles and Polynices. Hell, xxvi. 

54; Purg. xxii. 56. 
Ethiop. Purg. xxvi. 21; Par. xix. 109. 
Ethiopia. Hell, xxiv. 89. 
Euclid. Hell, iv. 142. 
Eunoe. Purg. xxviii. 131 ; xxxiii. 127. 
Euphrates. Purg. xxxiii. 112. 
Euripides. Purg. xxii. 106. 
Europa, daughter of Agenor. Par. 

xxvii. 84. 
Europe. Purg. viii. 123; Par. xii. 48. 
Eurus, southeast wind. Par. viii. 69. 
Euryalus. Hell, i. 108. 
Eurypylus. Hell, xx. 112. 
Evangelists, the four. Purg. xxix. 92. 
Eve. Purg. viii. 99; xii. 71; xxiv. 

116; xxix. 24; xxx. 52; xxxii. 32; 

Par. xiii. 37. 
Evil counsellors. Hell, xxvi. 
Ezekiel, Prophet. Purg. xxix. 100. 
Ezzelino, or Azzolino. Hell, xii. no; 

Par. ix. 29. 

Fabbro. Purg. xiv. 100. 

Fabii, the. Par. vi. 47. 

Fabricius. Purg. xx. 25. 

Faenza. Hell, xxvii. 49 ; xxxii. 123 ; 

Purg. xiv. loi. 
Faith, St. Peter examines Dante on. 

Par. xxiv. 
Falterona. Purg. xiv. 17. 
Famagosta. Par. xix. 146. 
Fame, seekers of, by noble enterprises. 

Par. V. 
Fano. Hell, xxviii. 76; Purg. v. 71. 
Fantolin, Ugolin de'. Purg. xiv. 121. 
Farfarello, demon. Hell, xxi. 123 ; 

xxii. 94. 
Farinata degli Uberti. Hell, vi. 79; 

X. 32. 
Federigo Novello. Purg. vi. 17. 
Federigo Tignoso. Purg. xiv. 106. 
Felix Guzman. Par. xii. 79. 
Feltro. Hell, i. 105 ; Par. ix. 52. 
Ferrara. Par. xv. 137. 
Fieschi, Counts of Lavagna. Purg. 

xix. 102. 
Fiesole. Hell, xv. 62, 96 ; Par. vi. 53 ; 

XV. 126; xvi. 122. 
Fifanti, family. Par. xvi. 104. 
Figghine. Par. xvi. 50. 



Filippeschi and Monaldi, families. 

Purg. vi. 107. 
Filippi, family. Par. xvi. 89. 
Fishes, sign of the Zodiac. Hell, xi. 

113; Purg. i. 21 ; xxxii. 54. 
Flatterers. Hell, xviii. 
Flemings. Hell, xv. 4. 
Fleur-de-lys, of France. Purg. xx. 86 ; 

Par. vi. 100. 
Florence. Hell, x. 92; xiii. 143; xvi. 

75 ; xxiii. 95 ; xxiv. 144 ; xxvi. i ; 

xxxii. 120; Purg. vi. 127; xii. 102; 

xiv. 64; XX. 75 ; xxiv. 79; Par. vi. 

53; ix. 127; XV. 97; xvi. 25, 84, III, 

146, 149 ; xvii. 48 ; xxv. 5 ; xxix. 103 ; 

xxxi. 39. 
Florentines. Hell, xv. 61 ; xvi. 73 ; 

xvii. 70 ; Purg. xiv. ; Par. xvi. 86. 
Florentine women. Purg. xxiii. 10 1. 
Focaccia de' Cancellieri. Hell, xxxii. 63. 
Focara. Hell, xxviii. 89. 
Folco of Marseilles. Par. ix. 94. 
Forese Donati. Purg. xxiii. 48, 76; 

xxiv. 74. 
Forll. Hell, xvi. 99 ; xxvii. 43. 
Fortune. Hell, vii. 62 ; xv. 46. 
Fortune, the greater^ Purg. xix. 4. 
Fosco, Bernardin di. Purg. xiv. loi. 
France. Hell, xix. 87 ; Purg. vii. 109 ; 

XX. 51, 71 ; Par. xv. 120. 
Francesca da Rimini. Hell, v. 116. 
Francesco of Accorso. Hell, xv. no. 
Francis of Assisi, St. Hell, xxvii. 112; 

Par. xi. 50, 74, 118; xxii. 90; xxxii. 

Franciscans. Par. xn. 115. 
Franco of Bologna. Purg. xi. 83. 
Fraud, sin of. Hell, xi. 25. 
Frederick I., Barbarossa. Purg. xviii. 

Frederick II., Emperor. Hell, x. 119; 

xiii. 59; xxiii. 66; Purg. xvi. 117; 

Par. lii. 120. 
Frederick, King of Sicily. Purg. vii. 

119; Par. xix. 131 ; XX. 63. 
Free will. Purg. xvi. 71 ; xviii. 74. 
French people. Hell, xxvii. 44 ; xxix. 

123; xxxii. 115; Par. viii. 75. 
Friars, Jovial (Frati Gaudenti), of 

Santa Maria. Hell, xxiii. 103. 
Frieslanders. Hell, xxxi. 64. 
Fucci, Vanni. Hell, xxiv. 125. 
Fulcieri da Calboli. Purg. xiv. 58. 
Furies, Hell, ix. 38. 

Gabriel, Archangel. Purg. x. 34; Par. 

iv. 47; ix. 138; xiv. 36; xxiii. 94; 

xxxii. 94, 103. 
Gaddo, son of Ugolino. Hell, xxxiii. 

Gaeta. Hell, xxvi. 02 ; Par. viii. 62. 
Gaia, daughter of Gherardo. Purg. 

xvi. 140. 

Galahaut. Hell, v. 137, 

Galaxy. Par. xiv. 99. 

Galen. Hell, iv. 143. 

Galicia. Par. xxv. i8. 

Galigaio. Par. xvi. loi. 

Galli, family. Par. xvi. 105. 

Gallura. Hell, xxii. 82 ; Purg. viii. 81. 

Galluzzo. Par. xvi. 53. 

Ganellon, or Gano, of Magonza. Hell, 

xxxii. 122. 
Ganges. Purg. ii. 5 ; xxvii. 4 ; Par. 

xi. 51. 
Ganymede. Purg. ix. 23. 
Garda, lake of. Hell, xx. 65. 
Gardingo, district of Florence. Hell, 

xxiii. 108. 
Gascons. Par. xxvii. 58, 
Gascony. Purg. xx. 66. 
Gate of Purgatory. Purg. ix. 51. 
Gaville. Hell, xxv. 151. 
Gemini, sign of the Zodiac. Par. xxii. 

Genesis. Hell, xi. 107. 
Genoese. Hell, xxxiii. 151 ; Par. ix. 

Gentucca. Purg. xxiv. 37. 
Geomancers. Purg. xix. 4. 
Gerault de Berneil. Purg. xxvi. 120. 
Geri del Bello. Hell, xxix. 27. 
Germans. Hell, xvii. 21. 
Germany. Hell, xx. 62. 
Geryon. Hell, xvii. 97, 133 ; xviii. 20; 

Purg. xxvii. 23. 
Ghent. Purg. xx. 46. 
Gherardo da Camino. Purg. xvi. 124, 

133- . 
Ghibelhnes and Guelfs. Par. vi. 103. 
Ghin di Tacco. Purg. vi. 14. 
Ghisola, sister of Caccianimico. Hell, 

xviii. 55. _ 
Gianfigliazzi, family. Hell, xvii. 59. 
Gianni Schicchi. Hell, xxx. 32. 
Gianni del Soldanieri. Hell, xxxii. 121. 
Giano della Bella. Par. x\'i. 132. 
Giants. Hell, xxxi. 31 ; Purg. xii. 33. 
Gideon. Purg. xxiv. 125. 
Gilboa, Mount. Purg. xii. 41. 
Giotto. Purg. xi. 95. 
Giuda. Par. xvi. 123. 
(iiuochi, family. Par. xvi. 104. 
Glaucus. Par. i. 68. 
Gluttons. Hell, vi. ; Purg. xxii.; 

xxiii. ; xxiv. 
Godfrey of Bouillon. Par. xviii. 47. 
Gomita, Brother. Hell, xxii. 81. 
Gomorrah. Purg. xxvi. 40. 
Gorgon, head of Medusa. Hell, ix. 56. 
Gorgona. Hell, xxxiii. 82. 
Governo, now Governolo. Hell, xx. 

Graffiacane, demon. Hell, xxi. 122 ; 

xxii. 34. 
Gratian. Par. x. 104. 



Greci, family. Par. xvi. 89. 

Greece. Hell, xx. 108. 

Greeks. Hell, xxvi. 75 ; Purg. ix. 39; 

xxii. 88 ; Par. v. 69. 
Gregory the Great, St. Purg. x. 75 ; 

Par. XX. 108 ; xxviii. 133. 
Griffolino d' Arezzo. Hell, xxix. 109. 
Griffon. Purg. xxix. 108 ; xxxii. 26. 
Gualandi, family. Hell, xxxiii. 32. 
Gualdo. Par. xi. 48. 
Gualdrada. Hell, xvi. 37. 
Gualterotti, family. Par. xvi. 133. 
Gubbio. Purg. xi. 80. 
Guelfs and Ghibellines. Par. vi. 107. 
Guenever. Par. xvi. 15. 
Guglielmo Aldobrandesco. Purg. xi. 

Guglielmo Borsiere. Hell, xvi. 70. 
Guidi, Counts. Par. xvi. 64. 
Guido Bonatti. Hell, xx. 118. 
Guido di Carpigna. Purg. xiv. ^8. 
Guido del Cassero. Hell, xxviii. 77. 
Guido da Castel. Purg. xvi. 125. 
Guido Cavalcanti. Hell, x. 63, iii; 

Purg. xi. 97. 
Guido del Duca. Purg. xiv. 81. 
Guido Guinicelli. Purg. xi. 97; xxvi. 

Guido da Montefeltro. Hell, xxvii. 4. 
Guido da Prata. Purg. xiv. 104. 
Guido Ravignani. Par. xvi. 98. 
Guido, Count of Romena. Hell, xxx. 

Guidoguerra. Hell, xvi. 38. 
Guiscard, Robert. Hell, xxviii, 14 ; 

Par. xviii. 48. 
Guittone d' Arezzo. Purg. xxiv. 56; 

xxvi. 124. 
Guy of Montfort. Hell, xii. 118. 

Halo. Par. xxviii. 23. 

Haman. Purg. xvii. 26. 

Hannibal. Hell, xxxi. 117; Par. vi. 

Harpies. Hell, xiii. 10, loi. 
Hebrews. Purg. iv. 83 ; xviii. 134 ; 

xxiv. 124 ; Par. v. 49 ; xxxii. 132. 
Hebrew women. Par. xxxii. 17. 
Hector. Hell, iv. 122 ; Par. vi. 68. 
Hecuba. Hell, xxx. 16. 
Helen. Hell, v. 64. 
Helice. (Callisto) Purg. xxv. 131. 

(Great Bear) Par. xxxi. 32. 
Helicon. Purg. xxix. 40. 
Heliodorus. Purg. xx. 113. 
Helios (the sun), God. Par. xiv. 96. 
Hellespont. Purg. xxviii. 71. 
Henry III. of England. Pur^. vii. 131. 
Henry VI., Emperor. Par. iii. 119. 
Henry VII., Emperor. Par. xvii. 82 ; 

xxx. 137. 
Henry, Prince, of England, the Young 

King. Hell, xxviii. 135. 

Heraclitus. Hell, iv. 138. 

Hercules. Hell, xxv. 32 ; xxvi. 108 ; 

xxxi. 132. 
Heretics. Hell, x. 
Hermitage of Camaldoli. Purg. v. 

Hezekiah, King. Par. xx. 49. 
Hierarchies, Angelic. Par. xxviii. 
Hippocrates. Hell, iv. 143. 
Hippolytus, son of Theseus. Par. 

xvii. 46. 
Holofernes. Purg. xii. 59. 
Holy Land. Par. ix. 125 ; xv. 1^4. 
Homer. Hell, iv. 88 ; Purg. xxii. loi. 
Homicides. Hell, xii. 
Honorius III., Pope. Par. xi. 98. 
Hope, St. James examines Dante on. 

Par. xxv. 
Horace. Hell, iv. 89. 
Horatii, the. Par. vi. 39. 
Hugh Capet. Purg. xx. 43. 
Hugh of St. Victor. Par. xii. 133. 
Humility, examples of. Purg. xii. 
Hungary. Par. viii. 65 ; xix. 184. 
Hyperion. Par. xxii. 142. 
Hypocrites. Hell, xxiii. 
Hypsipyle. Hell, xviii. 92 ; Purg. xxii. 

95 ; xxvi. 112, 168. 

larbas. Purg. xxxi. 72. 

Icarus. Hell, xvii. 109 ; Par. viii. 126. 

Ida, Mount. Hell, xiv. 98. 

Ilerda. Purg. xviii. loi. 

Ilion. Hell, i. 75 ; Purg. xii. 62. 

Illuminato. Par. xii. 130. 

Importuni, family. Par. xvi. 133. 

India. Hell, xiv. 32. 

Indians. Purg. xxxii. 41 ; Par. xxix. 


Indulgences. Par. xxix. 123. 
Indus. Par. xix. 71. 
Infangato. Par. xvi. 123. 
Innocent III., Pope. Par. xi. 92. 
Ino, wife of Athamas. Hell, xxx. 5. 
Interminei, Alessio. Hell, xviii. 122. 
lole. Par. ix. 102. 
Iphi^enia. Par. v. 70. 
Irascible, the. Hell, vii. ; viii ; Purg. 

XV. ; xvi. 
Iris. Purg. xxi. 50 ; xxix. 78 ; Par. 

xii. 12 ; xxviii. 32; xxxiii. 118. 
Isaac, patriarch. Hell, iv. 59. 
Isaiah, prophet. Par. xxv. 91. 
Isfere. Par. vi. 59. 
Isidore, St. Par. x. 131. 
Ismene, daughter of CEdipus Purg. 

xxii. III. 
Ismenus. Purg. xviii. 91. 
Israel (Jacob), patriarch. Hell, iv. 59. 
Italy. Hell, i. 106; ix. 114; xx. 61; 

xxvii. 27 ; xxxiii. 80 ; Purg. vi. 76 ; 

IDS, 124; vii. 95; xiii. 96; xx. 67; 

xxx. 86 ; Par. xxi. 106 ; xxx. 137. 



Jacob, patriarch. Par. viii. 131 ; xxii. 

71, 144; xxxii. 68. 
Jacopo del Cassero. Purg. v. 64. 
Jacopo da Lentino, the Notary. Purg. 

xxiv. 56. 
Jacopo Rusticucci. Hell, vi. 80; xvi. 

Jacopo of Sant' Andrea. Hell, xiii. 

Jaculi (serpents). Hell, xxiv. 86. 
James, St. (son of Alpheus), apostle. 

Purg. xxix. 142 ; xxxii. 76. 
James, St. (son of Zebedee), apostle, 

Par. XXV. 17, 77. 
James, King of Aragon. Purg. vii. 

1 19 ; Par. xix. 137. 
James, King of the Balearic Isles. 

Par. xix. 137. 
Janus. Par. vi. 81. 
Jason, leader of the Argonauts. Hell, 

xviii. 86 ; Par. ii. 18. 
Jehoshaphat. Hell, x. 11. 
Jephthah. Par. v. 66. 
Jericho. Par. ix. 124. 
Jerome, St. Par. xxix. 37. 
Jerusalem. Hell, xxxiv. 114 Purg. 

ii. 3 ; xxiii. 29 ; Par. xix. 127 ; xxv. 

Jews. Hell, xxiii. 123; xxvii. 87 ; Par. 

vii. 47 ; xxix. 102. 
Joachim, Abbot. Par. xii. 140. 
Joan of Montefeltro. Purg. v. 89. 
Joan, Visconti. Purg. viii. 71. 
Joan, mother of St. Dominic. Par. 

xii. 80. 
Jocasta, Queen of Thebes. Purg. xxii. 

John the Baptist, St. Hell, xiii. 143 ; 

XXX. 74 ; Purg. xxii. 152 ; Par. xvi. 

2S> 47; xviii. 134; xxxii. 31. 
John Chrysostom, St. Par. xii. 137. 
John, St., evangelist. HeU, xix. 106 ; 

Purg. xxix. 92, 105, 143 ; xxxii. 

76; Par. xxiv. 126; xxv. 112; xxxii. 

John, St., church in Florence. Hell, 

xix. 17. See Baptistery. 
John XXII., Pope. Par. xxvii. 58. 
Jordan. Purg. xviii. 135 ; Par. xxii. 

Joseph, Patriarch. Hell, xxx. 97. 
Joseph, St., husband of Virgin Mary. 

Purg. XV. 91. 
Joshua. Purg. xx. in; Par. ix. 125; 

xviii. 38. 
Jove. Hell, xiv. 52 ; xxxi. 45, 92 ; 

Purg. xii. 32; xxix. 120; xxxii. 112; 

Par. iv. 62. 
Jove, Supreme (appellation of the 

Christian God). Purg. vi. 118. 
Juba. Par. vi. 170. 
Jubilee of the year 1300. Hell, xviii. 
' 29 ; Purg. ii. 98. 

Judas Iscariot. Hell, xx. 27; xix. 96; 

xxxiv. 62 ; Purg. xx. 74 ; xxi. 84. 
Judas Maccabeus. Par. xviii. 40. 
Judecca. Hell, xxxiv. 117. 
Judith. Par. xxxii. 10. 
Julia, daughter of Caesar. Hell, iv. 

Julius Caesar. Hell, i. 70; iv. 123; 

xxviii. 98 ; Purg. xviii. loi ; xxvi. 

77 ; Par. vi. 57 ; xi. 69. 
Juno. Hell, xxx. i ; Par. xii. 12 ; 

xxviii. 32. 
Jupiter, planet. .,Par. xviii. 70, 95, 115; 

xxii. 145 ; xxvii. 14. 
Justinian, Emperor. Purg. vi. 89; 

Par. vi. 10; vii. i. 
Juvenal. Purg. xxii. 14, 

Lacedaemon (Sparta). Purg. vi. 139. 
Lachesis. Purg. xxi. 25; xxv. 79. 
Lamberti, family. Par. xvi. no. 
Lamone. Hell, xxvii. 49. 
Lancelot. Hell, v. 128. 
Lanciotto, Malatesta. Hell, v. 107. 
Lanfranchi, family. Hell, xxxiii. 32. 
Langia, fountain of. Purg. xxii. H2. 
Lano. Hell, xiii. 120. 
Lapo, abbreviation of Jacopo, plural 

Lapi. Par. xxix. 102. 
Lapo Salterello. Par. xv. 128. 
Lasca, the celestial. Purg. xxxii. 54. 
Lateran church. Hell, xxvii. 86. 
Latian, for Italian. Hell, xxvii. 33 ; 

xxix. 88 ; Purg. xi. 58. 
Latian land, Italy. Hell, xxvii. 27; 

xxviii. 71. 
Latini, Brunetto. Hell, xv. 30; loi. 
Latinus, King. Hell, iv. 125. 
Latona. Purg. xx. 131; Par. x. 67; 

xxii. 139 ; xxix. i. 
Lavagna. Puig. xix. loi. 
Lavinia. Hell, iv, 126 ; Purg. xvii. 37 ; 

Par. vi. 3. 
Lawrence, St. Par. iv. 83. 
Leah. Purg. xxvii. loi. 
Leander. Purg. xxviii. 73. 
Learchus and Melicertes. Hell, xxx. 

Lebanon. Purg. xxx. 11. 
Leda. Par. xxvii. 98. 
Lemnos. Hell, xviii. 88. 
Lentino, Jacopo da. Purg. xxiv. 56. 
Leopard, she-. Hell, i. 32. 
Lerici. Pure. iii. 49. 
Lethe. Hell, xiv. 131, 136; Purg. 

xxvi. 108; xxviii. 130; xxx. 143; 

xxxiii. 96, 123. 
Levi. Purg. xvi. 132. 
Liberality, examples of. Purg. xx. 31. 
Libicocco, demon. Hell, xxi. 121 ; xxii. 

Libra, sign of the Zodiac. Purg. xxvii. 




Libya. Hell, xxiv. 85. 

Lily (flower-de-luce), arms of France. 

Purg. vii. 105. 
Limbo. Hell, ii. 52 ; iv. 45 ; Purg. 

xxii. 14; Par. xxxii. 84. 
Limoges. Purg. xxvi. 120. 
Linus, the poet. Hell, iv. 141. 
Linus, Pope. Par. xxvii. 41. 
Lion. Hell, i. 45. 
Lion, sign of the Zodiac. Par. xvi. 37 ; 

xxi. 14. 
Livy. Hell, xxvlii. 12. 
Lizio. Purg. xiv. 97. 
Loderingo degli Andal6. Hell, xxiii. 

Logodoro. Hell, xxii. 89. 
Lombard dialect. Hell, xxvii. 20. 
Lombard, the great, Bartolommeo 

della Scala. Par. xvii. 71. 
Lombard, the simple, Guido da Cas- 

tello. Purg. xvi. 126. 
Lombardo, Marco. Purg. xvi. 46. 
Lombards. Hell, xxii. 99. 
Lombardy and the Marca Trivigiana. 

Hell, xxviii. 74; Purg. xvi. 115. 
Louises, Kings of France. Purg. xx. 50. 
Lovers. Par. viii. 
'Lucan. Hell, iv. 90 ; xxv. 94. 
Lucca. Hell,xviii. 122; xxi. 40; xxxili. 

30; Purg. xxiv. 20. 
Lucia, St. _ Hell, ii. 97 ; Purg. ix. 55 ; 

Par. xxxii. 137. 
Lucifer. Hell, xxxi, 143 ; xxxiv. 89 ; 

Purg. xii. 25 ; Par. ix. 127 ; xix. 47 ; 

xxix._ 56. 
Lucretia. Hell, iv. 128; Par. vi. 41. 
Luke, St. Purg. xxi. 7 ; xxix. 92. 
Luni. Hell, xx. 47 ; Par. xvi. 73. 
Lycurgus, King of Nemaea. Purg. 

xxvi. 94. 

Macarius, St. Par. xxii. 49. 
Maccabees. Hell, xix. 86. 
Maccabeus. Par. xviii. 40. 
Maghinardo da Susinana. Hell, xxvii. 

Magra, river. Par. ix. 89. 
Magus, Simon. Hell, xix. i. 
Mahomet. Hell, xxviii. 31, 62. 
Maia (for the planet Mercury). Par. 

xxii. 144. 
Mainardi, Arrigo. Purg. xiv. 97. 
Mainardo, Pagani. Purg. xiv. 118. 
Majorca. Hell, xxviii. 82 ; Par. xix. 

Malacoda, demon. Hell, xxi. 76, 79; 

xxlii. 141. 
Malaspina, Corrado. Purg. viii. 65 ; 

Malatesta of Rimini. Hell, xxvii. 46. 
Malatestino. Hell, xxviii. 81. 
Malebolge. Hell, xviii. i ; xxi. 5 ; xxiv. 

37 ; xxix. 41. 

Malebranche, demons. Hell, xxi. 37; 

xxii. 100 ; xxiii. 23 ; xxxiii. 142. 
Malta, prison. Par. ix. 54. 
Manfred, King of Apulia. Purg. iii. 

Manfredi, Aberigo de', of Faenza. 

Hell, xxxiii. 118. 
Manfredi , Tribaldello de'. Hell, xxxii. 

Mangiadore, Peter. Par. xii. 134. 
Manto, Hell, xx. 55 ; Purg. xxii. 

Mantua. Hell, xx. 93 ; Purg. vi. 72 ; 

xviii. 83. 
Mantuan. (Virgil) Hell, ii. 58 ; Purg. 

vi. 74. (Sordello) Purg. vii. 86. 
Mantuans. Hell, i. 69. 
Marcab6. Hell, xxviii. 75. 
Marcellus. Purg. vi. 125. 
March of Ancona. Purg. v. 68. 
March of Treviso. Purg. xvi. 115; 

Par. ix. 25. 
Marchese, Messer. Purg. xxiv. 31. 
Marcia, wife of Cato. Hell, iv, 128 ; 

Purg. i. 79. 
Marco Lombardo. Purg. xvi. 46. 
Maremma. Hell, xxv. 19 ; xxix. 48 ; 

Purg. v. 134- 
Margaret, Queen of Aragon. Purg. 

vii. 128. 
Marquis (Obizzo) da Este. Hell, xviii. 

Marquis (William) of Monferrato. 

Purg. vii. 134. 
Mars. Hell, xiii. 144 ; xxiv. 145 ; xxxi. 

51; Purg. xii. 31; Par. iv. 63; viii. 

132 ; xvi. 47, 145 ; xxii. 146, 
Mars, planet. Purg. ii. 14; Par. iv. 

63; xiv. loi ; xvi. 38; xvii. 77; 

xxvii. 14. 
Marseilles. Purg. xviii. 102. 
Marsyas. Par. i. 20. 
Martm IV., Pope. Purg. xxiv. 20. 
Martin, Master. Par. xiii. 139. 
Mary, Hebrew woman. Purg. xxiii. 

Mary, the Virgin. Purg. iii. 39 ; v. loi ; 

viii. 37 ; X. 50; xiii. 50; xv. 88 ; xviii. 

100; XX. 19, 97; xxii. 142; xxxiii. 

6; Par. iii. 122; iv. 30; xi. 71; xiii. 

84; xiv. 36; XV. 133 ; xvi. 34; xxiii. 

Ill, 126, 137; xxxii. 4, 95, 104, 107, 

113 ; xxxiii. i, 34. 
Marzucco. Purg. vi. 18. 
Mascheroni, Sassol. Hell, xxxii. 65. 
Matilda. Purg. xxviii. 40 ; xxxi. 92 ; 

xxxii. 28, 82; xxxiii. 119. 
Matteo of Acquasparta, Cardinal. Par. 

xii. 124. 
Matthias, St., Apostle. Hell, xix. 94. 
Medea. Hell, xviii. 96. 
Medicina, Pier da. Hell, xxviii. 73. 
Mediterranean Sea. Par. ix. 82. 



Medusa. Hell, ix. 52. 
Megaera. Hell, ix. 46. 
Melchisedec. Par. viii. 125. 
Meleager. Purg. xxv. 22. 
Melicertes and Learchus, sons of Atha- 

mas. Hell, xxx. 5. 
Melissus. Par. xiii. 125. 
Menalippus. Hell, xxxii. 131. 
Mercury. Par. iv. 63. 
Mercury, planet. Par. v. 96. 
Metellus. Purg. ix. 137. 
Michael, Archangel. Hell, vii. 11; 

Purg. xiii. 51 ; Par. iv. 47. 
Michael Scott. Hell, xx. 116. 
Michael Zanche. Hell,xxii. 88 ; xxxiii. 

Michal, Saul's daughter. Purg. x. 68, 

Midas. Purg. xx. 106. 
Midian. Purg. xxiv. 126. 
Milan. Purg. xviii. 120. 
Milanese. Purg. viii. 80. 
Mincio. Hell, xx. 77. 
Minerva. Purg. xxx. 68 ; Par. ii. 8. 
Minos. Hell, v. 4 ; xiii. 96 ; xx. 36 ; 

xxvii. 124; xxix. 120; Purg. i. 77; 

Par. xiii. 14. 
Minotaur. Hell, xii. 12, 25. 
Mira, La. Purg. v. 79. 
Miserere. Purg. v. 24. 
Modena. Par. vi. 75. 
Moldau. Purg. vii. 99. 
Monaldi and Filippeschi, families. 

Purg. vi. 107. 
Monferrato. Purg. vii. 136. 
Mongibello (Mt. Aetna). Hell, xiv. 

56 ; Par. viii. 70. 
Montagna, cavalier. Hell, xxvii. 47. 
Mont' Aperti. Hell, xxxii. 81. 
Montecchi and Cappelletti, families. 

Purg. vi. 106. 
Monte Feltro. Purg. v. 88. 
Montemalo (now Montemario). Par. 

XV. 109. 
Montemurlo. Par. xvi. 64. 
Montereggione. Hell, xxxi. 41. 
Montfort, Guy of. Hell, xii. 118. 
Montone. Hell, xvi. 99. 
Moon. Hell, x. 80; xix. 97; Par. xvi. 

Mordecai. Purg. xvii. 29. 
Mordred, son of King Arthur. Hell, 

xxxii. 61. 
Morocco. Hell, xxvi. 104; Purg. iv. 

Moronto, brother of Cacciaguida. Par. 

XV. 136. 
Mosca (degli Uberti, or Lamberti). 

Hell, vi. 80; xxviii. 106. 
Moses. Hell, iv. 57 ; Pur^ xxxii. 80 ; 

Par. iv. 29; xxiv. 136; xxvi. 41. 
Mozzi, Andrea dei. Hell, xv. 112. 
Muses. Hell, ii. 7; xxxii. 10; Purg. 

i. 8; xxii. 102; xxix. 37; Par. ii. 9; 

xii. 7 ; xxiii. 56. 
Mucins (Scaevola). Par. iv. 84. 
Myrrha. Hell, xxx. 38. 

Naiades. Purg. xxxiii. 49. 

Naples. Purg. iii. 27. 

Narcissus. Hell, xxx. 128 ; Par. iii. 18. 

Nasidius. Hell, xxv. 95. 

Nathan, Prophet. Par. xii. 136. 

Navarre. Hell, xxii. 48 ; Par. xLx. 

Navarrese, the (Ciampolo). Hell, xxii. 

48, 121. 
Nazareth. Par. ix. 137. 
Nebuchadnezzar. Par. iv. 14. 
Negligent of repentance, the. Purg. 

ii. to vii. 
Nella, wife of Forese. Purg. xxiii. 8:7. 
Neptune. Hell, xxviii. 83 ; Par. xxxiii. 

Neri, Black Party. Hell, vi. 64. 
Nerli, family. Par. xv. 115. 
Nessus. Hell, xii. 67, 98, 115 ; xiii. i. 
Niccol6 (Salimbeni) of Siena. Hell, 

xxix. 127. 
Nicholas, St., of Bari. Purg. xx. 32. 
Nicholas III., Pope. Hell, xix. 70. 
Nicosia. Par. xix. 146. 
Nile. Hell, xxxiv. 45 ; Purg. xxiv. 64 ; 

Par. vi. 66. 
Nimrod. Hell, xxxi. 77 ; Purg. xii. 

34 ; Par. xxvi. 126. 
Nino de' Visconti, of Pisa. Purg. viii. 

53. 109. 
Ninus. Hell, v. 59. 
Niobe. Queen of Thebes. Purg. xii. 

Nisus. Hell, i. 108. 
Noah. Hell, iv. 56 ; Par. xii. 17. 
Nocera. Par. xi. 48. 
Noli. Purg. iv. 25. 
Normandy. Purg. xx. 66. 
Norway. Par. xix. 139. 
Notary, the, Jacopo da Lentino. Purg. 

xxiv. 56. 
Novarese, the. Hell, xxviii. 59. 
Novello, Federigo. Purg. vi. 17. 
Numidia. Purg. xxxi. 72. 
Nymphs, Naiades. Purg. xxix. 4; 

xxxi. 106. 
Nymphs, stars. Par. xxiii. 26. 
Nymphs, Virtues. Purg. xxxii. 98. 

Obizzo of Esti. Hell, xii. iii ; xviii, 
Octavian Augustus. Hell, i. 71 ; Purg. 

vii. 6. 
Oderisi of Gubbio. Purg. xi. 79. 
Olympus. Purg. xxiv. 15. 
Omberto of Santafiore. Purg. xi. 67. 
Ordelaffi of Forli. Hell, xxvii. 45. 
Orestes. Purg. xiii. 32. 
Oriaco. Purg. v. 80. 



Ormanni, family. Par. xvi. 89. 

Orpheus. Hell, iv. 140. 

Orsini, family. Hell, xix. 70. 

Orso, Count. Purg. vi. 19. 

Ostia. Purg. ii. 100. 

Ostia, Cardinal of. Par. xii. 83. 

Ottocar, King of Bohemia. Purg. vii. 

Ovid. Hell, iv. 90 ; xxv. 97. 

Pachynus. Par. viii. 68. 
Padua. Par. ix. 46. 
Paduans. Hell, xv. 7. 
Pagani, family. Purg. xiv. 1x8. 
Palazzo, Corrado da. Purg. xvi. 124. 
Palermo. Par. viii. 75. 
Palestrina. Hell, xxvii. 102. 
Palladium. Hell, xxvi. 63. 
Pallas (Minerva). Purg. xii. 31. 
Pallas, son of Evander. Par. vi. 36. 
Paradise, Terrestrial. Purg. xxviii. 
Paris, city. Purg. xi. 81 ; xx. 52. 
Paris, Trojan. Hell, y. 67. 
Parmenides. Par. xiii. 125. 
Parnassus. Purg. xxii. 65, 104; xxviii. 

141 ; xxxi. 141 ; Par. i. 16. 
Pasiphae. Hell, xii. 13 ; Purg. xxvi. 
- 41, 86. 
Paul, Apostle. Hell, ii. 32 ; Purg. 

xxix. 134 ; Par. xviii. 131 ; xxi. 127 ; 

xxiv. 62 ; xxviii. 138. 
Paulus Orosius. Par. x. 119. 
Pazzi, family. (Rinier Pazzo) Hell, 

xii. 137. (Camicion de' Pazzi) Hell, 

xxxii. 68. 
Pear, family of the (the Peruzzi). Par. 

xvi. 126. 
Peculators. Hell, xxi.; xxii. 
Pegasea (Calliope). Par. xviii. 82. 
Peleus. Hell, xxxi. 5. 
Pelican (Christ). Par. xxv. 113. 
Pelorus. Purg. xiv. 32 ; Par, viii. 68. 
Penelope. Hell, xxvi. 96. 
Penthesilea. Hell, iv. 124. 
Perillus. Hell, xxvii. 7. 
Persians. Par. xix. 112. 
Persius. Purg. xxii. 100. 
Perugia. Par. vi. 75 ; xi. 46. 
Peschiera. Hell, xx. 70. 
Peter, St., Apostle. Hell, i. 134; ii. 

24; xix. 91; Purg. ix. 127; xiii. 51 ; 

xix. 99 ; xxi. 54 ; xxii. 63 5 xxxii. 76 ; 

Par. ix. 141 ; xi. 130 ; xviii. 131; xxi. 

127; xxii. 88; xxiii. 139; xxiv. 59, 

115, 124, 153; xxv. 12; xxvii. 49; 

xxxii. 124, 133. 
Peter, St., Church of. Hell, xviii. 32 ; 

xxxi. 59. 
Peter Damian. Par. xxi. 122. 
Peter Lombard. Par. x. 107. 
Peter Mangiadore. Par. xii. 134. 
Peter of Aragon. Purg. vii. 112 ; 125. 
Peter of Spain. Par. xii. 134. 

Peter a sinner. Par. xxi. 127. 
Pettignano, Pier. Purg. xiii. 128. 
Phaedra. Par. xvii. 47. 
Phaethon. Hell, xvii. 107 ; Purg. iv. 

72; xxix. 118; Par. xvii. 3; xxxi. 

Phalaris. Hell, xxvii. 7. 
Phareae, serpents. Hell, xxiv, 86. 
Pharisees. Hell, xxiii. 116 ; xxvii. 85. 
Pharsalia. Par, vi, 65. 
Philippo Argenti. Hell, viii. 61. 
Philip III., the Bold, of France. Purg. 

vi. 20 ; vii. 103. 
Philip IV., the Fair, of France. Hell, 

xix. 87 ; Purg. vii. 109 ; xx. 50, 86 ; 

xxxii. 152; Par. xix. 120. 
Philips, Kings of France. Purg. xx. 

Phlegethon. Hell, xiv. 116, 131. 
Phlegra. Hell, xiv. 58. 
Phlegyas. Hell, viii. 19, 24. 
Phoenicia. Par. xxvii. 83. 
Phoenix. Hell, xxiv. 107. 
Phdlus. Hell, xii. 72. 
Photinus. Hell, xi. 9. 
Phyllis. Par. ix. 100. 
Pia of Siena. Purg. v. 133, 
Piave, river. Par. ix. 27. 
Piccarda de' Donati. Purg. xxiv. 10; 

Par. iii. 49 ; iv. 97. 
Piceno, Campo. Hell, xxiv. 148. 
Pier da Medicina. Hell, xxviii. 73. 
Pier Pettignano. Purg. xiii. 128. 
Pier Traversaro. Purg. xiv. 98. 
Pier delle Vigne. Hell, xiii. 32. 
Pierre de la Brosse. Purg. vi. 22. 
Pietola. Purg. xviii. 83. 
Pietrapana. Hell, xxxii. 29. 
Pigli, family. Par. xvi, 103. 
Pila, Ubaldin dalla. Purg. xxiv. 29, 
Pilate, the modern (Philip the Fair). 

Purg. XX. 91. 
Pinamonte, Buonacorsi. Hell, xx. 96. 
Pine-cone of St. Peter's. Hell, xxxi. 

Pisa. Hell, xxxiii. 79 ; Purg. vi, 17, 
Pisans. Hell, xxxiii, 30; Purg. xiv, 

Pisistratus, Purg. xv. loi. 
Pistoia. Hell, xxiv. 126, 143 ; xxv. 10. 
Pius I. Par. xxvii. 44. 
Plato. Hell, iv. 134 ; Purg. iii. 43 ; Par. 

iv. 24, 49. 
Plautus. Purg. xxii. 98. 
Pluto. Hell, vi. 115. 
Po. Hell, V. 98; XX. 78; Purg. xiv. 

92 ; xvi. 115 ; Par. vi. 51 ; xv. 137. 
Pola. Hell, ix. 113. _ 
Pole, North. Purg. i. 29. 
Pole, South. Purg. i. 23. 
Polenta, family. Hell, xxvii. 41. 
Pollux, Castor and. Purg. iv. 61. 
Polycletus. Purg. x. 32. 



Polydorus. Hell, xxx. i8 ; Purg. xx. 

Polyhymnia. Par. xxiii. 56. 
Polymnestor. Purg. xx. 115. 
Polynices. Hell, xxvi. 54 ; Purg. xxii. 

Polyxena. Hell, xxx. 17. 
Pompey the Great. Par. vi. 53. 
Ponthieu. Purg. xx. 66. 
Porta Sole of Perugia. Par. xi. 47. 
Portugal. Par. xix. 139. 
Potiphar's wife. Hell, xxx. 97. 
Poverty, examples of. Purg. xx. 22. 
Powers, order of angels. Par. xxviii. 

Prague. Par. xix. 117. 
Prata, Guido da. Purg. xiv. 104. 
Prato. Hell, xxvi. 9. 
Pratomagno. Purg. v. n6. 
Preachers, rebuked. Par. xxix. 90. 
Pressa (della), family. Par. xvi. 100. 
Priam, King of Troy. Hell, xxx. 15, 

Priest, the High, Boniface VIII. Hell, 

XXV ii. 70. 
Primum Mobile. Par. xxvii. 68, 99, 

Princes, order of angels. Par. viii. 34 ; 

xxviii. 125. 
Priscian. Hell, xv. 109. 
Prodigal, the. Hell, vii. 
Progne. Purg. xvii. 19. 
Proserpine. Hell, ix. 44; x. 80; Purg. 

xxviii. 50. 
Proud, the, Purg. x. ; xi. ; xii. 
Provencals, the. Par. vi. 130. 
Provence. Purg. vii. 126 ; xx. 61 ; Par. 

viii. 58. 
Provenzan Salvani. Purg. xi. 121. 
Psalmist David. Purg. x. 65. 
Ptolemy, the astronomer. Hell, iv. 

Ptolemy, King of Egypt. Par. vi. 69. 
Ptolomaea. Hell, xxxiii. 124. 
Puccio Sciancato. Hell, xxv. 148. 
Pygmalion. Purg. xx. 103. 
Pyramus. Purg. xxvii. 38 ; xxxiii. 69. 
Pyrenees. Par. xix. 144. 
Pyrrhus. Hell, xii. 135 ; Par. vi. 44. 

Quamaro, Gulf of. Hell, ix. 113. 
Quinctius (Cincinnatus). Par. vi. 46. 
Quirinus (Romulus). Par. viii. 131. 

Raban. Par. xii. 139. 

Rachel. Hell, ii. 102; iv. 60; Purg. 

xxvii. 104 ; Par. xxxii. 8. 
Rahab. Par. ix. 116. 
Ram, sign of the Zodiac. Purg. viii. 

134 ; Par. xxix. 2. 
Raphael, Archangel. Par. iv. 48. 
Rascia, part of the modern Servia. 

Par. xix. 140. 

Ravenna. Hell, v. 97 ; xxvii. 40 ; Par. 

vi. 61 ; xxi. 123. 
Ravignani, family. Par. xvi. 97. 
Raymond Beranger. Par. vi. 134. 
Rebecca. Par. xxxii. 10. 
Red Sea. Hell, xxiv. 90 ; Purg. xviii. 

134; Par. vi. 79. 
Rehoboam. Purg. xii. 46. 
Reno, river. Hell, xviii. 61 ; Purg. 

xiv. 92. 
Renouard. Par. xviii. 46. 
Resurrection of the body. Par. vii. 

146; xiv. 43. _ 
Rhea. Hell, xiv. 100. 
Rhine, the. Par. vi. 58. 
Rhipeus, the Trojan. Par. xx. 68. 
Rhodope, she ot (Phyllis). Par. ix. 

Rhone, the. Hell, ix. 112; Par. vi. 60; 

viii. 59. 
Rialto (Venice). Par. ix. 26. 
Riccardo da Camino. Par. ix. 50. 
Richard of St. Victor. Par. x. 131. 
Rimini. Hell, xxviii. 86. 
Rinier of Calboli. Purg. xiv. 38. 
Rinier of Corneto. Hell, xii. 137. 
Rinier Pazzo. Hell, xii. 137. 
Riphaean Mountains. Purg. xxvi. 43. 
Robert Guiscard. Hell, xviii. 14 ; Par. 

xviii. 48. 
Robert, King of Apulia. Par. viii. 

Roland. Hell, xxxi. 18 ; Par. xviii. 

Romagna. Hell, xxvii. 37 ; xxxiii. 154 ; 

Purg. V. 6g; xiv. 92; xv. 44. 
Romagnuoli. Hell, xxvii. 28; Purg. 

xiv. 99. 
Roman buildings. Par. xv. 106. 
Roman Church. Hell, xix. 57 ; Par. 

xvii. 72. 
Roman Emperors. Purg. xxxii. 112. 
Roman Kings. Par. vi. 47. 
Roman Prince, Trajan. Purg. x. 76. 
Romans. Hell, xv. 77 ; xviii. 28 ; xxvi. 

60; xxviii. 28; Par. vi. 44; xix. 

Roman Shepherd, Pope Adrian V. 

Purg. xix. 107. 
Roman women, ancient. Purg. xxii. 

Rome, city. Hell, i. 71; ii. 20; xiv. 

105; xxxi. 59; Purg. vi. 112; xvi. 

106, 127; xviii. 80; xxi. 89; xxix. 

irs; xxxii. 149; Par. vi. 57; ix. 140; 

XV. 126; xvi. 10; xxiv. 63 ; xxvii. 25, 

62 ; xxxi. 34. 
Romena. Hell, xxx. 73. 
Romeo of Provence. Par. vi. 128, 135. 
Romuald, St. Par. xxii. 49. 
Romulus (Quirinus). Par. viii. 131. 
Roncesvalles. Hell, xxxi. 16. 
Rose, the Heavenly. Par. xxx. ; xxxi. 



Rubaconte, the bridge. Purg. xii. 102. 
Rubicante, demon. Hell, xxi. 123 ; 

xxii. 40. 
'Rubicon. Par. vi. 62. 
Rudolph of Hapsburg, Purg. vi. 103 ; 

vii. 94; Par. viii. 72. 
Ruggieri, degli Ubaldini, Archbishop 

of Pisa. Hell, xxxiii. 14. 
Rulers, just. Par. xviii. 
Rusticucci, Jacopo. Hell, vi. 80 ; xvi. 

Ruth. Par. xxxii. 10. 

Sabellius. Par. xiii. i?7. 
Sabellus. Hell, xxv. 95. 
Sabine women. Par. vi. 40. 
Sacchetti, family. Par. xvi. 10^. 
Saint Victor, Hugh of. Par. xii. 133. 
Saints of the Old and New Testament. 

Par. xxxii. 
Saladin. Hell, iv. 129. 
Salimbeni, Niccol6. Hell, xxix. 127. 
Salterello, Lapo. Par. xv. 128. 
Salvani, Provenzan. Purg. xi. 121. 
Samaria, woman of. Purg. xxi. 3, 
Samuel, Prophet. Par. iv. 29. 
San Miniato. Purg. xii. loi. 
Sanleo. Purg. iv. 25. 
Sannella, family. Par. xvi. 92. 
Sant' Andrea, Jacomo da. Hell, xiii. 

Santafiore, Counts of. Purg. vi. m ; 

xi. 58. 
Santerno. Hell, xxvii. 49. 
Saone, river. Par. vi. 59. 
Sapia, lady of Siena. Purg. xiii. 109. 
Sapphira and Ananias. Purg. xx, 112. 
Saracens. Hell, xxvii. 87 ; (Saracen 

women) Purg. xxiii. 103. 
Sara, wife of Abraham. Par. xxxii. 

Sardanapalus. Par. xv. 107. 
Sardinia. Hell, xxii. 89; xxyi. 104; 

xxix. 48; Purg. xviii. 81; xxiii. 94. 
Sassol Mascheroni. Hell, xxxii. 65. 
Satan. Hell, vii. i. 
Saturn. Hell, xiv. 96 ; Par. xxi. 26. 
Saturn, the planet. Purg. xix. 3 ; Par. 

xxi. 13 ; xxii. 146. 
Saul. Purg. xii. 40. 
Savena, river. Hell, xviii. 61. 
Savio, river. Hell, xxvii. 52. 
Scaevola, Mucius. Par. iv. 84. 
Scala, Alberto della. Purg. xviii. 121. 
Scala, Bartolommeo della. Par. xvii. 

Scala, Can Grande della. Par. xvii. 

Scales, sign of the Zodiac. Purg. ii. 5 ; 

Par. xxix. 2. 
Scarmiglione, demon. Hell, xxi. 105. 
Schicchi, Gianni. Hell, xxx. 32. 
Schismatics. Hell, xxviii. ; xxix. 

Sciancato, Puccio. Hell, xxv. 148. 
Scipio, Africanus. Hell, xxxi. ii6| 

Purg. xxix. 116; Par. vi. 53; xxvii. 

Sclavonian winds. Purg. xxx. 87. 
Scorpio, sign of the Zodiac. Purg, ix. 

5 ; XXV. 3. 
Scot, the. Par. xix. 122. 
Scott, Michael. Hell, xx. 116. 
Scrovigni, family. Hell, xvii. 64. 
Scyros. Purg. ix. 37. 
Seducers. Hell, xviii. 
Seine, the. Par. vi. 59; xix. 118. 
Semele. Hell, xxx. 2 ; Par. xxi. 6. 
Semiramis. Hell, v. 58. 
Seneca. Hell, iv. 141. 
Sennacherib. Purg. xii. 53. 
Seraph. Par. xxi. 92. 
Seraphim. Par. iv. 28 ; viii. 27 ; ix. 

77 ; xxviii. 72, 99. 
Serchio, river. Hell, xxi. 49. 
Serpents of Libya. Hell, xxiv. 85. 
Sestos. Purg. xxviii. 74. ^ 
Seven Kings against Tfiebes. Hell, 

xiv. 68. 
Seville. Hell, xx. 126 ; xxvi. no. 
Sextus I., Pope. Par. xxvii. 44. 
Sextus (Tarquinius). Hell, xii. 135. 
Shinar. Purg. xii. 36. 
Sibyl, Cumaean. Par. xxxiii. 66. 
Sichaeus. Hell, v. 62 ; Par. ix. 98. 
Sicilian Vespers. Par. viii. 75. 
Sicily. Hell, xii. 108; Purg. iii. 116; 

Par. viii. 67; xix. 131. 
Siena. Hell, xxix. 109 ; Purg. v. 134 ; 

xi. Ill, 123. 
Sienese. Hell, xxix. 122, 134; Purg. 

xi. 65 ; xiii. 115, 151. 
Siestri. Purg. xix. 100. 
Sigier. Par. x. 136. 
Sile, river. Par. ix. 49. 
Silvius. Hell, ii. 13. 
Simifonti. Par, xvi. 62. 
Simois, river. Par. vi. 67. 
Simon Magus. Hell, xix. i ; Par. xxx. 

Simoniacs. Hell, xix. 
Simonides. Purg. xxii. 107. 
Sinigaglia. Par. xvi. 75. 
Sinon the Greek. Hell, xxx. 98. 
Siren. Purg. xix. 19. 
Sirens. Purg. xxxi. 45 ; Par. xii, 8. 
Sirocco. Purg. xxviii. 21. 
Sismondi, family. Hell, xxxiii. 32. 
Sizii, family. Par. xvi. 108. 
Slothful, the. Hell, vii. ; viii. ; Purg. 

xvii. ; xviii. 
Socrates. Hell,iv. 134. 
Sodom. Hell, xi. 50 ; Purg. xxvi. 40, 

Sodomites. Hell, xv. 
Soldanier, Gianni del. Hell, xxxii. 




Soldanieri, family. Par. xvi. 93. 
Solitary and Contemplative, the. Par. 

Solomon. Par. x. 109 ; xiii. 48, 89 ; 

xiv. 35. 
Solon. Par. viii. 124. 
Soothsayers. Hell, xx. 
Soracte. Hell, xxvii. 95. 
Sordello. Purg. yi. 74 ; vii. 3, 52, 85 ; 

viii. 38, 62, 94 ; ix. 58. 
Sorgue, river. Par. viii. 59. 
Sow, arms of the Scrovigni. Hell, xvii. 

Spain. Hell, xxvi. 103 ; Purg. xviii. 

102; Par. vi. 64 ; xii. 46; xix. 125. 
Spaniards. Par. xxix. loi. 
Sphinx. Purg. xxxiii. 43. 
Spirit, Holy. Purg. xx. 98 ; Par. iii. 

Stars, fixed. Par. xxh. 
Stars, last word of Hell, Purg., Par. 
Stars of the South Polar region. Purg. 

i. 23. 
Statins. Purg. xxi. 10, 91 ; xxii. 25, 

64; xxiv. 119; XXV. 29; xxvii. 47; 

xxxii. 29; xxxiii. 134. 
Statue of Time, source of Acheron, 

Styx, Phlegethon. Hell, xiv. 103. 
Stephen, St. Purg. xv. 106. 
Stigmata of St. Francis. Par. xi. 107. 
Street of Straw (Rue du Fouarre). 

Par. X. 137. 
Stricca. Hell, xxix. 125. 
Strophades. Hell, xiii. 11. 
Styx. Hell, vii. 109; ix. 81 ; xiv. 116. 
Suabia. Par. iii. 119. 
Suicides. Hell, xiii. 
Sultan. Hell, v. 60; xxvii. 90; Par. 

xi. loi. 
Sylvester, Fra. Par. xi. 83. 
Sylvester, St., Pope. Hell, xix. 117; 

xxvii. 94 ; Par. xx. 57. 
Syrinx. Purg. xxxii. 65. 

Tacco, Ghin di. Purg. vi. 14. 
Tagliacozzo. Hell, xxviii. 17. 
Tagliamento, river. Par. ix. 44. 
Talamone. Purg. xiii. 152. 
Tambernich. Hell, xxxii. 28. 
Tarlati, Cione de'. Purg. vi. 15. 
Tarpeian Rock. Purg. ix. 137. 
Tarquin. Hell, iv. 127. 
Tartars. Hell, xvii. 17. 
Taurus, sign of the Zodiac. Purg. xxv. 

3 ; Par. xxii. in. 
Tegghiaio Aldobrandi. Hell, vi. 79 ; 

xvi. 41. 
Temple, the. Purg. xx. 93. 
Terence. Purg. xxii. 97. 
Tesoro of Erunetto Latini. Hell, xv. 

Thaddeus. Par. xii. 83. 
Thais. Hell, xviii. 133. 

Thales. Hell, iv. 137.,. 

Thames, the. Hell, xii. 120. 

Thaumas. Purg. xxi. 50. 

Thebaid, poem of Statins. Purg. xxi. 

Theban blood. Hell, xxx. 2. 
Thebans. Hell, xx. 32 ; Purg. xviii. 

Thebes. Hell, xiv. 69 ; xx. 59 ; xxv. 

15; XXX. 22 ; xxxii. n; xxxiii. 89; 

Purg. xxi. 92 ; xxii. 89. 
Thebes, modern (Pisa). Hell, xxxiii. 

Themis.^ Purg. xxxiii. 47. 
Theologians. Par. x. 
Theseus. Hell, ix. 54; xii. 17; Purg. 

xxiv. 123. 
Thetis. Purg. ix. 37 ; xxii. 113. 
Thibault II., King. Hell, xxii. 52. 
Thieves. Hell, xxiv. 
Thisbe. Purg. xxvii. 37. 
Thoas and Euneos. Purg. xxvi, 95. 
Thomas, St., Apostle. Par. xvi. 129. 
Thomas Aquinas. Purg. xx. 69 ; Par. 

x. 82; xii. no, 144; xiii. 32; xiv. 6. 
Throne and Crown for Henry VII. of 

Luxemburg. Par. xxx. 137. 
Thrones, order of angels. Par. ix. 61 ; 

xxviii. 104. 
Thymbraeus (Apollo). Purg. xii. 31. 
Tiber. Hell, xxvii. 30 ; Purg. ii. loi ; 

Par. xi. 106. 
Tiberius Caesar. Par. vi. 86. 
Tignoso, Federico. Purg. xiv. 106. 
Tigris, the. Purg. xxxiii. 112. 
Timaeus, the, of Plato. Par. iv. 49. 
Tiresias. Hell, xx. 40; Purg. xxii. 

Tisiphone. Hell, ix. 48. 

Tithonus. Purg. ix. 1. 

Titus, Emperor. Purg. xxi. 82; Par. 

vi. 92. 
Tityus. Hell, xxxi. 124. 
Tobias. Par. iv. 48. 
Tomyris. Purg. xii. 56. 
Toppo, the. Hell, xiii. 121. 
Torquatus, Titus Manlius. Par. vi. 

Tours. Purg. xxiv. 23. 
Traitors. Hell, xxxii. ; xxxiii.; xxxiv. 
Trajan, Emperor. Purg. x. 76; Par. 

XX. 44, 112. 
Transfiguration, the. Purg. xxxii. 73. 
Traversara, family. Purg. xiv. 107. 
Traversaro, Pier. Purg. xiv. 98. 
Trent. Hell, xii. 5. 
Trentine Pastor. Hell, xx. 67. 
Trespiano. Par. xvi. 54. 
Tribaldello. Hell, xxxii. 122. 
Trinacria (Sicily). Par. viii. 67. 
Trinity, the. Par. xiii. 26; xxxiii. 115. 
Tristan. Hell, v. 67. 
Trivia (Diana). Par. xxiii. 26. 



Troad, mountains of the. Par. vi. 6. 
Trojan Furies. Hell, xxx. 22. 
Trojans. Hell, xiii. 11 ; xxx. 14; Purg. 

xviii. 136 ; Par. xv. 126. 
Tronto, river. Par. viii. 63. 
Troy. Hell, i. 74; xxx. 98. 114; Purg. 

xii. 61. 
Tully. Hell, iv. 141. 
Tupino, river. Par. xi. 43. 
Turbia. Purg. iii. 49. 
Turks. Hell, xvii. 17; Par. xv. 145. 
Turnus. Hell, i. 108. 
Tuscan language. Purg. xyi. 137. 
Tuscan (Dante). Hell, xxiii. 91 ; xxxii. 

Tuscans. Hell, xxii. 99 ; Purg. xi. 58. 
Tuscany. Hell, xxiv. 122; Purg. xi. 

no; xiii. 149; xiv. 16. 
Tydeus. Hell, xxxii. 130. 
Typhoeus. Par. viii. 70. 
Typhon. Hell, xxxi. 124. 
Tyrants, Hell, xii. 103. 
Tyrol. Hell, xx. 63. 

Ubaldin dalla Pila. Purg. xxiv. 29. 
Ubaldini, Octaviano degli. Hell, x. 

Ubaldini, Ruggieri degli. Hell, xxxiii. 

Ubaldo, St., of Gubbio. Par. xi. 44. 
Uberti, family. Par. xvi. 109. 
Ubertin, Donati. Par. xvi. 119. 
Ubertino, Frate. Par. xii. 124. 
Ubriachi, family. Hell, xvii. 62. 
Uccellatoio, Mount. Par. xv. no. 
Ughi, family. Par. xvi. 88. 
Ugolin d' Azzo. Purg. xiv. 105. 
Ugolin de' Fantoli. Purg. xiv. 121. 
Ugolino della Gherardesca. Hell, 

xxxiii. 13. 
Uguccione. Hell, xxxiii. 89. 
Ulysses. Hell, xxvi. 56; Purg. xix. 

22 ; Par. xxvii. 83. 
Unbelievers. Hell, x. 
Urania. Purg. xxix. 41. 
Urban I. Par. xxvii. 44. 
Urbino. _ Hell, xxvii. 29. 
Urbisaglia. Par. xyi. 73. 
Usurers. Hell, xvii. 44. 
Utica. Purg. i. 74. 
Uzzah. Purg. x. 57. 

Val Camonica. Hell, xx. 65. 
Valdarno, in Tuscany. Purg. xiv. 30. 
Valdichiana, in Tuscany. Hell, xxix. 

Valdigreve, in Tuscany. Par. xvi. 66. 
Val di Magra. Hell, xxiv. 145 ; Purg. 

viii. T16. 
Vanni Fucci. Hell, xxiv. 125. 
Var, river. Par. vi. 58. 

Varro. Purg. xxii. 98. 

Vatican. Par. ix. 139. 

Vecchio, family of the. Par. xv. 115. 

Venetians, arsenal of the. Hell, xxi. 7. 

Venice, coin of. Par. xix. 141. 

Venus. Purg. xxv. 132 ; xxviii. 65. 

Venus, planet. Purg. i. 19 ; Par. viii. 

II ; ix. 33. 
Vercelli. Hell, xxviii. 73. 
Verde, river. Purg. iii. 131 ; Par. viii. 

Verona. Hell, xv. 122 ; Purg. xviii. 

Veronica, the. Par. xxxi. 104. 
Verrucchio. Hell, xxvii. 46. 
Veso, Mount. Hell, xvi. 95. 
Vespers, Sicilian. Par. viii. 75. 
Vicenza. Par. ix. 47. 
Vigne, Pier delle. Hell, xiii. 32. 
Violators of monastic vows. Par. iii. 
Violent, the, against others. Hell, xii. ; 

against themselves, xiii. ; against 

God, xiv. ; against Nature, xv. ; xvi. ; 

against Art, xvii. 
Viper, arms of the Milanese Visconti. 

Purg. viii. 80. 
Virgil. Hell, i. 79 ; Purg. iii. 74 ; vii. 

7; viii.__64; xviii. 82, 112; Par. xv. 

26; xvii. 19; xxvi. 118. 
Virtues, order of angels. Par. xxviii. 

Visconti of Milan. Purg. viii. 80. 
Visconti of Pisa. Purg. viii. 53, 109. 
Visdomini, family. Par. xvi. 112. 
Vision, the beatific. Par. xxxiii. 
Vitalianodel Dente. Hell, xvii. 68. 
Vows, not performed. Par. iv. 137. 
Vulcan. Hell, xiv. 52. 

Wain, Charles's. Hell, xi. 114; Purg. 

1. 30 ; Par. xiii. 7. 
Wenceslaus IV., of Bohemia. Purg. 

vii. loi ; Par. xix. 125. 
Will, free. Purg. xvi. 76; xviii. 74. 
William, Marquis of Monferrato, Purg. 

vii. 134- 
Wissant. Hell, xv. 4. 

Xerxes. Purg. xxviii. 71 ; Par. viii. 

Zanche, Michael. Hell, xxii. 88; 

xxxiii. 144. 
Zara, game of hazard. Purg. vi. i. 
Zeno, Hell, iv. 138. 
Zeno, San, monastery at Verona. Purg. 

xviii. 118. 
Zephyr. Par. xii. 47. 
Zion, Mount. Purg. iv. 68. 
Zita, Saint. Hell, xxi. 38. 
Zodiac. Purg. iv. 64 ; Par. x. 14. 

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